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Table 9 Summary of interventions with details on mechanisms, where available

From: Are interventions to reduce the impact of arsenic contamination of groundwater on human health in developing countries effective? A systematic review

Oxidation and filtration Passive oxidation and sedimentation
  Slow sand filtration
Amin (2010) MGH filter Two bucket filter – the iron content Fe(II) of the source water is converted to a hydrous ferric oxide from (Fe(III) as HFeO or FeOH) by aeration, which reacts with the As(V) species. As(V) is removed by adsorption, co-precipitation and sand filtration.
Berg (2006), Tobias (2011) Sand filter Pumped water trickles through the sand filter – oxic conditions, assume co-ppt with co-existing Fe-OH.
Al-Muyeed (2006), Hoque (2000), Brennan (2011a) and (2011b) A/IRP Aeration/sedimentation chamber followed by filtration.
BAMWSP (2001), Sutherland (2001), Hoque (2000), Sutherland (2002), Rahman (2005), Hoque (2004) GARNET Passive coagulation with iron (from alkaline brick chips) and adsorption to sand.
BAMWSP (2001), Sutherland (2001) Ardasha filter Passive sedimentation and adsorption to clay/carbonised organic matter candle.
BAMWSP (2001), Sutherland (2001), Hoque (2000) Passive sedimentation  
Bhattacharyya (2004) Domestic clay candle filter Passive sedimentation and adsorption to clay candle.
Hassan (2009) Iron oxidising bacteria Water flows through biological fixed bed reactor comprising of gravel bed media and coconut husk (iron oxidising bacteria have been shown to oxidise arsenite). In second reactor the water passes through a sand filter, iron matrix wooden charcoal and another sand filter.
Sharma (2005), Hassan (2008) A/IRU Aeration, sedimentation and filtration of groundwater.
Shafiquzzaman (2011) Iron removal ceramic filter Biological oxidation of Fe and filtration. Also uses an iron net as additional source of Fe and iron bacterial sludge, however, aeration and biological oxidation seen as primary process.
Delowar (2006) Asian Arsenic Network (AAN) Filter  
Delowar (2006) NIFSF  
Coagulation, co-precipitation and filtration Extends the processes operating at Fe-MN removal plants by adding metal salts onto which As is adsorbed.
Tend to be complex, comprising a chemical feed system, mixing equipment, basins for mixing, flocculation and settlement, a filter medium and filter medium.
BAMWSP (2001), Sutherland (2001), Sutherland (2002) DPHE/Danida two bucket system Based on the addition of aluminium sulphate and permanganate.
Hoque (2000) Alum treatment of contaminated water  
BAMWSP (2001), Sutherland (2001), Sutherland (2002), Cheng (2004), Meng (2001) Stevens Institute technology Based on the addition of iron sulphate (coagulant) and hypochlorite (oxidant).
Amiri (2010), BCSIR (2008) CIWPL, STAR Ferric sulphate – coagulation, then filter to remove flocs.
Norton (2009) Procter & Gamble powder Flocculant-disinfectant.
Ali (2001) Alum and iron coagulation  
Hossain (2005) Chlorinating agent (BP) + ferric alum  
Adsorption processes Activated alumina, synthetic iron oxyhydroxide adsorbents, granular ferric hydroxide and granular ferric oxide, iron oxide coated sands
Hossain (2005) Variations on activated alumina and ferric hydroxide (x7)  
Hossain (2006) Samples 305 arsenic removal plants (ARPs) – based on typical ARP with granular ferric oxide  
Amiri (2010), BCSIR (2008) Apyron Alumina and modified alumina.
Amiri (2010), BCSIR (2008) Nelima Granular ferric oxide.
Amiri (2010), BCSIR (2008) Shapla Fe2O3 impregnated brick chip.
Amiri (2010), BCSIR (2008) Wholly water Arsenic removal filter filled with MnO2, brass powder, ferric sulphate modified alumina and granular activated carbon. Second filter of activated alumina.
Anstiss (2001) Tank system with ferric oxide Synthetic ferric oxyhydroxide (suspension) – adsorbs and settles – sand/gravel filter.
Jakariya (2003, 2005, 2007), Rahman (2005), BRAC (2000) Safi filter The Safi candle is prepared from laterite soil, ferric oxide, manganese dioxide, aluminium hydroxide and meso-porous silica.
Misra (2005) As removal filter Reactant material is a processed waste from the steel industry, followed by fine cloth filter, sand and another fine cloth filter.
Sarkar (2008), BRAC (2000), Sarkar (2005), Amiri (2010), Sutherland (2002), BCSIR (2003, 2008), BAMWSP (2001), Sutherland (2001), Sutherland (2002), Jakariya (2003, 2007), Ahmad (2005) Activated alumina filter  
Yuan (2002), Ali (2001), Petrusevski (2008) Iron oxide coated sand (IOCS) IOCS
BRAC (2000), BCSIR (2003), Jakariya (2003) SIDKO Granular iron hydroxide
Ali (2001) Gravel bed with iron sludge  
BCSIR (2003) READ-F A proprietary filter media. Arsenic is adsorbed on the media.
Zero-valent iron Use of low cost iron filings/nails – process appears to work by co-precipitation and adsorption
BAMWSP (2001), Sutherland (2001), Hussam (2007), Jakariya (2003, 2005, 2007), Neku (2003), Shafiquzzaman (2009), Sutherland (2002), Milton (2007), BRAC (2000), BCSIR (2003), Delowar (2006), Ngai (2007), Ngai (2006), Uy (2009), Hoque (2004), Ahmad (2006) SONO – 3 kolshi arsenic filter-three gagri-three pitcher Passive coagulation with Fe and/or adsorption to sand matrix.
Iron filings or CIM matrix which is a mixture of metal iron and iron hydroxides.
Ion exchange
Hossain (2005) Ferric hydroxide  
Hossain (2005) Bucket of resins  
Hossain (2005) Catalytic precipitation/electron exchange  
BAMWSP (2001), Sutherland (2001), Sutherland (2002), BCSIR (2003) Tetrahedron/Tetratreat Ion exchange resin filter with a gentle oxidative hypochlorite pre-wash.
Sarkar (2007) ArsenX Anion exchange resin beads containing dispersed nanoparticles of hydrated ferric oxide.
Membrane technology Reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, microfiltration and ultrafiltration  
Oh (2000) Low pressure nanofiltration Feed water pre-filtrated by microfiltration or directly applied to NF membrane (tight RO membrane).
Arsenic removal in situ Via oxygenation  
Van Halem (2010), Gupta (2010), Rott (2008) Subterranean arsenic removal Aerated water injected into tubewell to create oxidation zone.
Electrolytic methods
Wan (2011) Electrocoagulation Electrocoagulation with iron electrodes, followed by candle filter.