Skip to main content

Table 5 Definitions of bias mentioned in the narrative synthesis

From: Human well-being impacts of terrestrial protected areas

Recall bias Imperfect recollection of past events by respondents. Generally worsened by longer periods of recall
Social desirability bias Tendency to respond to questioning in such as way as to be viewed favourably by others
Questioning bias Questioner leading respondents to reply to questioning in a certain direction
Neyman bias Arises from a time lag between exposure and sampling such that undetected drop-out of participants may occur before the study begins.
Attrition bias A skew in results where participants are lost between measurements at two time points (potentially as a result of the exposure) during the study
Optimism bias A belief by a respondent that they are less likely to experience a negative event relative to other respondents, or over-optimism on the part of analysts or interviewers, about the effects of a project.
Hypothetical bias Failure of respondents to consider the true budget constraints in responding to financial questioning
Strategic bias Tendency for respondents to alter their answers in an attempt to influence an event