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Table 1 Ecosystem services and example assessment metrics reported from mangrove forests

From: Do mangrove forest restoration or rehabilitation activities return biodiversity to pre-impact levels?

Ecosystem service type Examples Biodiversity or abiotic component responsible Example assessment metrics Example studies
Provisioning Timber Tree species Stand density, stem diameter, tree height [27]
Fisheries Fish and invertebrate species Abundance and biomass of relevant species [28, 29]
Regulating Coastal protection Tree species Mangrove area, tree density and structural complexity [30, 31]
Carbon storage Sediment, Tree species Sediment depth, sediment carbon content, tree biomass [32]
Supporting Erosion control and sediment stabilisation (land expansion) Tree species Forest age, density, form and structural complexity of dominant tree species [33, 34]
Primary production Tree species Leaf litter, tree biomass gain [35]
Nutrient cycling Whole biotic community and sediment Leaf litter biomass [36]
Cultural Religious values Unclear Unclear [24]
Tourism and recreation Highly variable Species richness and abundance of charismatic species [37]
  1. Ecosystem service examples grouped by type with example assessment metric identified from published literature. Ecosystem service types are based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [23].