Mean response ratio (
) based on density (● ) and biomass (■ ) data for target species in the partially protected area and the open access area (partial:open) for each ‘protection regime’ category (IdC: Indiscriminate, commercial; DC: discriminate, commercial; DR: discriminate, recreational). Sample size (i.e. the number of MPAs) for each ratio is shown in parentheses. The vertical dotted line at () = 0 represents equal fish density or biomass inside and outside of the MPA; () > 0 means more fish inside the PPA; () < 0 means fewer fish in the PPA.