Forest plot of fish assemblage effect sizes based on density data in the PPA and the Open area. Each row represents a paired PPA-Open comparison. The first top four PPAs (separated by a spacer from the other PPAs) were excluded from the sensitivity analysis, due to habitat confounding effect. The vertical dotted line at = 0 represents equal fish density inside and outside of the PPA; > 0 means more fish inside the PPA; < 0 means fewer fish in the PPA. The squares are the effect size for each PPA, the error bars are the 95% confidence interval for each PPA, whose values are given on the right hand side of the figure. The size of each square is proportional to the weight of the study. Summary effect: the diamond represents the weighted mean calculated from the random effects meta-analysis of all MPAs included in the main analysis, the width of the diamond is proportional to the estimation in the error of the mean (95% CI) and the horizontal dotted line is the prediction interval were 95% of true effects are predicted to occur.