Forest plot of fish assemblage effect sizes based on biomass data in the PPA and the Open area. Each row represents a paired PPA-Open comparison. The first top three PPAs (separated by a spacer from the other PPAs) were excluded from the sensitivity analysis, due to habitat confounding effect. The vertical dotted line at = 0 represents equal fish biomass inside and outside of the PPA; > 0 means higher biomass inside the PPA; < 0 means lower biomass in the PPA. The squares are the effect size for each MPA, the error bars are the 95% confidence interval for each PPA, whose values are given on the right hand side of the figure. The size of the square is proportional to the weight assigned to the study via the within-study variance. Summary effect: the diamond represents the weighted mean calculated from the random effects meta-analysis of all MPAs included in the main analysis, the width of the diamond is proportional to the estimation in the error of the mean and the horizontal dotted line is the prediction interval were 95% of true effects are predicted to occur.