Forest plot of fish population effect sizes based on density data in the NTR and the PPA. Each row represents a paired NTR-PPA comparison. The top two MPAs (separated by a spacer from the other MPAs) were excluded from the sensitivity analysis, due to habitat confounding effect. The vertical dotted line at = 0 represents equal fish density in the NTR and PPA; > 0 means more fish inside the NTR; < 0 means fewer fish in the NTR. The squares are the effect size for each MPA, the error bars are the 95% confidence interval for each MPA, whose values are given on the right hand side of the figure. Summary effect: the diamond represents the weighted mean calculated from the random effects meta-analysis, the width of the diamond is proportional to the estimation in the error of the mean and the horizontal dotted line is the prediction interval were 95% of true effects are predicted to lie.