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Table 1 Hierarchy of study quality assessment based on sampling design

From: Evaluating the biological effectiveness of fully and partially protected marine areas

Sampling design Spatial replication Temporal replication  
  Treatment (MPA) Control Before After N oof studies
Beyond-BACI multiple multiple multiple multiple 1
  multiple multiple once multiple 1
BACI one one multiple multiple 3
  one one once once 1
After Control-Impact multiple multiple - multiple 7
  multiple multiple - once 5
  multiple one - multiple 4
  multiple one - once 2
  one multiple - once 1
  one one - multiple 18
  one one - once 14
Before-After one - - multiple 2
  one - - once 1
  1. Study quality in terms of sampling design decreases down the list.