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Table 1 Elements of the systematic review questions

From: What are the non-food impacts of GM crop cultivation on farmers’ health?

Secondary questions







Q1: Does the cultivation of GM crops result in a lower number of pesticide-related poisonings?

Non-food health effects of GM cultivation

Farmers (understood as farm owners, farm labourers and agricultural contractors) in developing and developed countries

GM cultivation: any type of GM trait and any type of host crop

Intermediary: amount of pesticides usage; Final: number of pesticide-related poisonings

Farmers cultivating corresponding conventional non-GM crops (both traditional and organic)

Any study comparing the impacts on human health, before and after cultivating GM crops on the same farm, and between cultivation of GM crops and cultivation of non-GM crops either on the same farm or between different farms, but occurring at the same time

Q2: Does the cultivation of GM crops allow for higher financial resources to be used by farmers to improve their and their family health status?

Same as above

Same as above

Same as above

Intermediary: income derived from GM crop cultivation; Final: health related expenditures

Same as above

Same as above