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Table 1 Contribution of forests, trees and agroforestry systems to food production systems at different spatial scales

From: To what extent does the presence of forests and trees contribute to food production in humid and dry forest landscapes?: a systematic review protocol

Ecosystem services Spatial scale
  Farm/local Landscape/regional Global
Primary production (food and fodder) X   
Water retention X   
Nutrient cycling X   
Pollination services X X  
Habitat for beneficial species X X  
Natural pest control X X  
Soil formation X X  
Water regulation X X  
Climate regulation X X X
Genetic biodiversity X X X
  1. Summarized from Daily et al. 1998, Shibu 2009, and Locatelli 2012: Contributions of forests to agricultural production and food security. Document prepared for discussion at workshop on the value of forests to agriculture. March 2012 Bogor, Indonesia. By the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).