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Table 1 Research framework for Population-Intervention-Comparator-Outcomes (PICO)

From: What are the environmental impacts of property rights regimes in forests, fisheries and rangelands? a systematic review protocol

POPULATION Resource systems INTERVENTION Property regimes COMPARATOR OUTCOME MEASURES
Forests State Before and after intervention (temporal dimension) Species diversity and abundance, forest cover, forest condition, tree density, biomass, carbon sequestration, measures of land degradation and desertification, forest loss, land conversion, measures of disturbances such as number of cut stumps, number of invasive species, etc.
OR Private OR With and without the intervention, from a similar setting (spatial dimension)
Fisheries OR Community OR Both before and after AND with and without intervention (BACI) Abundance of fish, fish size, diversity of species, biomass, health of coral, water quality, reproductive indicators, etc.
Rangelands OR Mixed   Species diversity and abundance, plant and bare ground cover, proportion of different species, soil indicators, carbon sequestration, biomass, soil nutrient levels, number of supported animals etc.