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Table 3 The subjects, exposures, comparators and outcomes of relevance

From: The impact of land use and cover change on above and below-ground carbon stocks of the miombo woodlands since the 1950s: a systematic review protocol

Relevant subject Relevant exposures Comparators Relevant outcomes
Miombo woodlands: as defined by the presence of Brachystegia, Julbernardia and Isoberlinia Land use and land use practices that impact on above and below ground carbon stocks, which include: Alternative land uses and practices compared either as controlled ‘plots’ (study areas defined in the primary studies) with different land-use strategies set up and analysed at the same time, or before-and-after intervention comparisons on the same plots. Any measured change in:
- Carbon stocks (including plant carbon and soil carbon)
- Energy use (firewood and charcoal) - Plant biomass (including above and below ground)
- Poles (for use in the home)
- Commercial Timber harvesting
- Agriculture (including shifting cultivation, expansion)
- Livestock (browsing of saplings)
- Wildlife damage (i.e. elephants)
- Beekeeping (making of traditional bark hives)
- Destructive harvesting of NTFPs (e.g., edible caterpillars, fruits)
- Protected areas
- Agroforestry
- Fire (natural; managed and wild)
- Rainfall; drought; temperature variability
- Infrastructure development (roads; mining)
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