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Table 3 Summary of methods used in the studies included in the review

From: Systematic review of effects on biodiversity from oil palm production

Study Taxonomic group Collected data Sampling method Methodology
Invertebrates     
Brühl & Eltz [36] Ground-dwelling ants Species richness Tuna baits Baits along 105 transects of various lengths (10-100 m)
Chey [31] Moths Species richness, abundance and composition Light traps One light-trap at each site for 3 consecutive nights.
Chang et al. [27] Mosquitoes Species richness and abundance Human baits All-night human landing collections on 5 consecutive nights each year.
Chung et al. [21] Subterranean beetles Species richness, abundance and composition Winkler sampling Ten 1 m2 samples of leaf litter and soil at each site.
  Understorey beetles Species richness, abundance and composition Flight-interception-trapping 3 traps per site. Two weeks of sampling. Only samples from alternate days used.
  Arboreal beetles Species richness, abundance and composition Mist-blowing 10 trees at least 10 m apart
Davis & Philips [22] Dung beetles Species richness and abundance Pitfall traps 4 sites per habitat, 3 traps per site at least 10 m apart, two 24-hour periods
Fayle et al. [42] Canopy ants Species richness, abundance and composition Fogging 20 transects per habitat
  Ants in the ferns Species richness, abundance and composition Entire ferns collected, litter and core fragments processed. 20 transects per habitat
  Leaf litter ants Species richness, abundance and composition Litter samples 20 transects per habitat
Hashim et al. [41] Ants Species richness Hand-collecting and pitfall traps 3 randomly-distributed 0.25 m2 subplots within each of three 10 m × 10 m plots and 5 pitfall traps per habitat.
Hassall et al. [35] Terrestrial isopods Species richness and abundance Quadrats Plots sampled on a stratified random basis.
Koh & Wilcove [28] Butterflies Species richness Banana-baited traps 98 trapping sites with total of 48 hours of trapping
Liow et al. [43] Bees Species richness, abundance and composition Honey-baited traps in transects Non-randomly selected 1-3 transects per site. On average 12.85 hours surveyed per transect
Lucey & Hill [32] Ground-dwelling ants Species richness, abundance, and composition Pitfall traps 2000 m transects, f1ve traps per trap station, six trap stations in forest and in oil palm plantations, 100 m between trap stations. Sampled twice for 12 consecutive days.
  Butterflies Species richness, abundance, and composition Fruit-bated traps Two 2000 m transects, 10 trap stations in forest and in oil palm plantation, 100 m between trap stations. Sampled twice for 12 consecutive days at both occasions.
Room [44] Ground foraging ants Species richness, abundance and composition Quadrats 30 samples per habitat.
Vaessen et al. [33] Termites Species richness, abundance and composition Transects One transect established randomly at each site.
Vertebrates     
Aratrakorn et al. [45] Birds Species richness and relative abundance Timed Species Counts 30 oil palm plantations selected from aerial photographs. The number of sites based on preliminary counts. Two counts of 20 min divided into five 4-minute blocks.
Azhar et al. [26] Birds Species richness, abundance and composition Transect counts 470 various-length transects: 418 in plantation estates, 52 in smallholdings and 20 in peat swamp forest.
Bernard et al. [34] Non-volant small mammals Species richness, abundance and composition Live cage traps with baits 50 traps per trapping site arranged into 5 200 m long trap lines.
Danielsen & Heegaard [46] Birds, primates, tree-shrews, and squirrels Species richness, abundance, and composition Variable-distance line-transect 2000 m straight line; surveyed for 40 hours in forest areas and for 20 hours in oil palm.
  Bats Species richness, abundance, and composition Mist nets 15-20 nets (totaling 150-250 m).
Edwards et al. [47] Birds Species richness and abundance Timed point-counts along transects 5 sites per habitat, 12 sampling points at 250 m intervals at each site.
Fukuda et al. [48] Bats Species richness and abundance Mist nets and harp traps 2-4 mist nets per night, 3-6 census points per habitat.
Gillespie et al. [39] Amphibians Species richness and composition Transects 400 m transects; 6 in wet forest, 5 in dry forest, and 3 in oil palm plantation. Each sampled 3-4 times.
Glor et al. [49] Lizards Species richness and abundance Glue traps Non-randomly selected 10 x 10 m trapping grids with 20 traps each, 3 plots in oil palm, 4 in mogote.
Juliani [40] Bats Species richness and abundance Mist nets 10 mist nets randomly placed in each habitat type.
Peh et al. [38, 50] Birds Species richness and abundance Point counts 240 point counts arbitrary chosen. At least 200 m from each other. 127 sites in the oil palm.
Sheldon et al. [37] Birds Species richness, abundance and composition Point counts 20 three-minute point counts at 50 m intervals along the transects.