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Table 4 Summary of information on species composition provided in the reviewed studies*

From: Systematic review of effects on biodiversity from oil palm production

Authors Year published Taxonomic group Similarity between primary forest and plantation Similarity between secondary forest and plantation Statistics used Changes in communities between forest and plantation Notes on similarity Causes
Invertebrates         
Brühl & Eltz [36] 2010 Ground-dwelling ants - - - Yes Communities of plantations dominated by a small number of, partly invasive, non-forest taxa. Highly impoverished in regard to forest taxa. Absence of leaf litter. Hot and dry conditions possibly prevent colony establishment and reduce survival.
Chang et al. [27] 1997 Mosquitoes 100% - - No Lower abundances but same species composition. na
Chey [31] 2006 Moths 0.278   Preston’s coefficient of faunal resemblance Yes Noctuid and arctiid species dominated the assemblages. Low floristic diversity. Lichens and other host plants. Open habitat (many noctuid and arctiid species favor open habitat).
Chey [31] 2006 Moths 0.228  
Chey [31] 2006 Moths 0.970  
Chung et al. [21] 2000 Subterra-nean, understorey and arboreal beetles - - Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis Yes Species composition significantly different between sites (primary forest, secondary forest and oil palm). A few species dominated the assemblage at the plantation site. The amount of litter, tree and sapling densities, and plant species richness.
Davis & Philips [22] 2005 Dung beetles 22.5% - Steinhaus similarity coefficient; Persentage disagreement distance measure; Cluster analysis and ordination Yes Similarity between both forest types and plantation. Physiognomic differences.
Fayle et al. [42] 2010 Ants (canopy) S: 0.191, C: 0.301 - Sørenson’s classic similarity index; Chao’s incidence-based measure with a correction for unseen species Yes Only a small proportion of forest ant species were present in oil palm plantation. Non-native species were much more widespread. Temperature nearly significant factor ( P= 0.073). Simplification of the canopy structure. Competitive interactions.
Fayle et al. [42] 2010 Ants (ferns) S: 0.056, C: 0.070 - Sørenson’s classic similarity index; Chao’s incidence-based measure with a correction for unseen species Yes Only a small proportion of forest ant species were present in oil palm plantation. Non-native species were much more widespread. Competitive interactions.
Fayle et al. [42] 2010 Ants (leaf-litter) S: 0.213, C: 0.555 - Sørenson’s classic similarity index; Chao’s incidence-based measure with a correction for unseen species Yes Only a small proportion of forest ant species were present in oil palm plantation. Non-native species were much more widespread. Temperature. Hotter and drier environment. Competitive interactions.
Hashim et al. [41] 2010 Ants - - - Yes Four species found in the plantation were absent from mangrove forest and two species found in the mangrove were absent from the plantation. na
Hassall et al. [35] 2006 Terrestrial isopods - - - Yes   na
Liow et al. [43] 2001 Bees - - Cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis Yes Families Halictidae and Anthophoridae were more commonly caught in oil palm plantation. The occurence of families Halictidae and Anthophoridae were correlated with higher temperatures and light intensity, lower humidity levels and greater flowering intensities.
Lucey & Hill [32] 2012 Ants - - Non-metric multidimensional scaling Yes NMDS differentiated between the habitats. Air and soil temperature.
Lucey & Hill [32] 2012 Butterflies - - Non-metric multidimensional scaling Yes Two distinct clusters, one for forest and one for plantation. Air and soil temperature.
Room 1975 Ground foraging ants 25.0% - Percentage similarity expressed as 100 × [(2 × number of occurences common to both)/(sum of occurences present in each)] Yes Only a small proportion of forest ant species were present in oil palm plantation. Non-native species were much more widespread. na
Vaessen et al. [33] 2011 Termites - - - Yes The assemblage dominated by Schedorhinotermes. Decrease in the amount of dead wood.
Vertebrates         
Aratrakorn et al. [45] 2006 Birds - - - Yes Plantations dominated by few species. 60% of the species recorded only in the forest, 3% only in the oil palm plantation. Species recorded only in the forest had significantly smaller ranges. Species that were recorded in both forest and plantations had smaller body size than species recorded only in forest. na
Bernard et al. [34] 2009 Non-volant small mammals 12.0% - Proportional difference calculated following a formula by Thiollay (1992); a hierarchical cluster analysis Yes Both forest types (primary and secondary) combined. Oil palm plantations may act as an effective barrier to the dispersal of small mammals. na
Danielsen & Heegaard 1995 Birds 38.7% - Proportional difference calculated following a formula by Thiollay (1992) Yes Widespread, generalist, and common species much more abundant in plantations than in the primary forest. Plantation age, proximity to forest, microhabitat structure, and level of human disturbance.
Danielsen & Heegaard 1995 Primates 0.0% - Proportional difference Yes   na
Danielsen & Heegaard 1995 Squirrels and tree-shrews 0.0% - Proportional difference Yes No squirrels or tree-shrews observed in the plantation. na
Danielsen & Heegaard 1995 Bats 13.0% - Proportional difference Yes Insectivorous bats appear to be more susceptible to conversion than frugivores/nectarivors. na
Edwards et al. 2010 Birds 10.0%   Analysis of Similarity Yes   na
Fukuda et al. [48] 2009 Bats - - - Yes Certain species absent in the oil palm plantation: Two frugivorous species were not recorded at all, only two insectivorous species recorded. The absent frugivorous species rarely use agricultural lands for feeding.
Gillespie et al. [39] 2012 Amphibians 0.592 (p = 0.0002) - Analysis of Similarity between all forest transects and plantation and non-forest transects combined. Yes The assemblages reflect the strong affinities of certain species with particular habitat types. Plantation assemblages dominated by terrestrial, non-endemic, generalist species. Absence of suitable microhabitats. The simple structure and open canopy of plantations results in greater temperature flux between day and night, increased evaporation rates and lower humidity.
Glor et al. 2001 Lizards - - - Yes   Microhabitat availability in regard to, at least, two species (grass-bush anole and Cochran's dwarf gecko). Oil palm plantation lacks the perch availability and understory microhabitat of natural forest.
Peh et al. 2005, 2006 Birds - - Multiresponse permutation procedure Yes Forest species constituted only 26% of the total individuals observed in plantation. Nearby primary forest may act as a source habitat. Simplification of the vertical vegetational structure.
Juliani 2010 Bats - - - Yes Almost all species that were found in the oil palm plantation can be classified as common species in disturbed areas. na
Sheldon et al. [37] 2010 Birds - - - Yes Most species in oil palm plantation were open country and scrub species that are common throughout Borneo. Simple botanical structure.
  1. *The causes marked bold were statistically significant.