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Table 5 Summary of information on species composition between logged peat forest and smallholder plantations*

From: Systematic review of effects on biodiversity from oil palm production

Author Year published Taxonomic group Similarity between logged peat forest and plantation Similarity between logged peat forest and smallholdings Statistics used Changes in communities between forest and plantation Notes on similarity Causes
Azhar et al. [26] 2011 Birds 21.40% 19.10% Analysis of similarity, Similarity percentage procedure Yes Oil palm management regimes had a similar species composition but both differed from the forest. The bird community in oil palm consisted of non-forest resident, forest-dependent, migratory, and wetland species. Extensive canopy cover which in turn may suppress ground layer vegetation that can provide refuge from predators and provide food sources.
  1. *The causes marked bold were statistically significant.