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Table 3 Variables assessed and criteria used for critical appraisal of included studies

From: Evaluating effects of land management on greenhouse gas fluxes and carbon balances in boreo-temperate lowland peatland systems

   Low Susceptibility to Bias High Susceptibility to Bias
Study design Study season, length Long (>3 months) study period, multiple seasons Short (<3 months) study period, winter measurement
Intervention timescale Long-term intervention maintained for multiple years Intervention in place for <2 years
Replication, randomisation Replication at level of intervention, large sample size (>3), some degree of randomisation in sample selection Pseudoreplicated, low sample size (<3), no randomisation
Control matching Control and treatment/exposure samples well-matched (i.e. close in proximity but low chance of spillover effects) No evidence of matching, potentially influential differences between treatment and control
Clarity and detail of methods General study design very clear and repeatable Some missing information
Specific methodology Eddy covariance measurement details Full description of methodology, accounting for wind direction/speed Some missing methodological detail, no accounting for wind direction/speed
Flux chamber measurement details Full description of methodology, measurement disturbance mitigation measures Some missing methodological detail, no mitigation for measurement disturbance
Soil porewater/air measurement details Full description of methodology, representative sampling Some missing methodological detail, sampling unlikely to be representative of variability in environment
Surface water measurement details Full description of methodology, representative sampling Some missing methodological detail, sampling unlikely to be representative of variability in environment
Bias Potential measurement bias Measurement bias unlikely or evidently not present Bias likely as a result of methodology
Presence of confounders No obvious confounders stated or evident, or stated but adequately accounted for Confounders stated and unaccounted for or likely to be present
Unclear classification given to any study where substantial details within the methods are either unclear of missing.