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Table 4 Intervention/exposure groups generated iteratively during the review process with brief descriptions of definitions

From: Evaluating effects of land management on greenhouse gas fluxes and carbon balances in boreo-temperate lowland peatland systems

Intervention/exposure group



Actively cropped fields compared to those with no vegetation (extracted or de-vegetated)

Drained and restored-vs-undrained

Drained and then restored peatlands compared to pristine fen


Drained peatlands compared to pristine/undrained peats, or heavily drained peatlands compared to lightly drained peats


Dry peat soils compared to wetter soils

Extracted and restored-vs-natural

Both extracted and then restored peats compared to unextracted/pristine peats

High intensity farmed-vs-low intensity farmed

Intensively compared with extensively farmed peats (in terms of a wide variety of unspecified farming activities)

Fertilised and grazed-vs-unfertilised and mown

Both fertilised and grazed compared to unfertilised and ungrazed but mown peats

Fertilised-vs-less fertilised

High fertilisation rates compared to low fertilisation rates


Grass fields compared to forested fields


Grazed peatlands compared to ungrazed but mown fields


Rain fed irrigated peatlands compared to non-irrigated peats

Mineral soil dressed-vs-undressed

Peats with added mineral soil compared to soils lacking mineral addition

Old abandoned-vs-recently abandoned

Peats abandoned for a longer period compared to more recently abandoned peats

Old afforested-vs-recently afforested

Peats planted with trees for a longer period compared to more recently planted forest peatlands


Peats described by authors as ‘poor’ compared to those described as ‘rich’ (corresponding to natural gradients in nutrient status and acidity)


Previously extracted peats with deliberately raised water tables compared to extracted and unaltered peatlands