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Table 3 Combinations of interventions and outcomes (number of included studies)

From: What is the impact of active management on biodiversity in boreal and temperate forests set aside for conservation or restoration? A systematic map

InterventionOutcome
Vertical stand structureHorizontal stand structureTree microhabitatsDead woodTreesVascular plants except treesBryophytesLichensFungiMammalsBirdsAmphibiansReptilesSaproxylic beetlesGround beetlesOther beetlesInsects except beetlesArthropods except insectsInvertebrates except arthropodsInvasive speciesAll outcomes
Burning34176012310511715123131341691013330227
Thinning571455129113261311363440191071614122229
Partial harvesting48477315311337261226491032925173834315311
Removal of woody understorey700735274423700433550957
Removal of ground vegetation000027543000000000009
Litter manipulation00004175440000000010520
Creation of dead wood20416219321006003115640066
Addition of dead wood00033111500011112310019
Grazing or exclusion from grazing1801884110181259133221571812515157
Mowing0000680200200010110310
Coppicing000122000000010010004
Pollarding001021020000000000004
Underplanting400313166123020031351225
Introduction of non-tree species0000470010100400000611
Control of exotic/invasive species0000101400011000102301221
Hydrological interventions000122310000000000004
Other interventions0001592131000000000213
All interventions1155181534013738856527111517678543675641369