Skip to main content


Table 2 Domains and definitions of human well-being outcomes

From: What are the effects of nature conservation on human well-being? A systematic map of empirical evidence from developing countries

Economic living standardsHWB1Income, employment, employment opportunities, wealth, poverty, savings, payments, loans
Material living standardsHWB2Assets owned, access and availability of food, fiber and fuel basic infrastructure (electricity, water, telecommunications and transportation), shelter
HealthHWB3Physical health, nutrition, longevity/life expectancy, maternal health, child health, access to health care, occurrence of diseases, mental health
EducationHWB4Education infrastructure (access to school, access to training, quality of education); informal education (transfer of knowledge and skills includes livelihood skills, traditional knowledge and skills); formal education (degrees awarded, students enrolled)
Social relationsHWB5Interactions between individuals, within and/or between groups (communities, stakeholders, ethnic groups, gender); conflict, relationships, connectedness, ability to work together, ability to help others, and trust
Security and safetyHWB6Physical security (personal safety and security), resource security; tenure security; human rights; vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity
Governance (and empowerment)HWB7Structures and processes for decision making including both formal and informal rules; includes participation and control in decision making, accountability, justice, transparency and governance skills
Subjective well-beingHWB8Measures of happiness, quality of life, satisfactions supported by some value of ecosystem(s) and/or resources
Culture and spiritualityHWB9Cultural, societal and traditional values of natural resources and nature to the community; sense of home; cultural identity and heritage; spiritual or religious beliefs and/or values
Freedom of choice and actionHWB10Ability to pursue what you value doing and being
  1. Domains of human well-being are adapted from a subset of complementary typologies [23, 29, 60]