Skip to main content


Fig. 13 | Environmental Evidence

Fig. 13

From: What evidence exists for the effectiveness of on-farm conservation land management strategies for preserving ecosystem services in developing countries? A systematic map

Fig. 13

Water regulation indicators. Eight-five indicators were used to in studies measuring water regulation. Most common indicators included yield, water holding capacity/soil moisture retention, potassium, pH, particle size, water use efficiency, runoff, water infiltration rate, temperature, income and carbon dioxide. Perception of water quality was measured in six studies. Electric conductivity (liquids), cation exchange capability, dissolved organic carbon, and turbidity/water stable aggregates were measured in four studies. Metrics of evapotranspiration, groundwater depth, and erosion control were measured in three studies, and surface flow and base saturation in two studies

Back to article page