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Fig. 14 | Environmental Evidence

Fig. 14

From: What evidence exists for the effectiveness of on-farm conservation land management strategies for preserving ecosystem services in developing countries? A systematic map

Fig. 14

Cultural service indicators. Forty-three indicators were used in studies measuring cultural services. Social indicators (e.g. spiritual and symbolic value) were the best represented cultural service (n = 10 articles), followed by educational (n = 8), aesthetic/bequest (n = 8) [67], recreational (n = 6), and tourism/ornamental value (n = 5). Methods applied included: a preference-based analysis procedure [67]; ethnography [64]; transect walks; semi-structured interviews [68]; stakeholder workshops [67]; focus groups; and life-history interviews [69]. In particular, religious value was commonly inferred by identifying sacred sites, locations where ritual practice was carried out, and the number of ritual  artefacts used for festivals and weddings [67]. Other studies used the proxy of farmers’ donations of cereal grains to religious institutions [67]

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