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Table 4 Conservation land management interventions studied

From: What evidence exists for the effectiveness of on-farm conservation land management strategies for preserving ecosystem services in developing countries? A systematic map

GroupRankConservation land management interventionNo.%
Organic fertiliser (23.8 %, 358)1Farm yard manure (pig, poultry, cattle)/compost15410.2
2Urea714.7
3Crop residues664.4
4Leaf/green manure271.8
5Lime (incl. dolomite)/ash (coal and volcanic soils)140.9
6Biochar130.9
7Vermiculture80.5
8Waste (slaughterhouse/human effluent/biogas slurry/vinasse/distillery hh waste)50.3
Tillage (23.3 %, 350)1No till1419.4
2Single conventional tillage1117.4
3Disk harrow/plough302.0
4Minimum (incl. ripping and direct seeding)161.1
5Ridge/basin151.0
6Rotivar151.0
7Mouldboard/base/country plough80.5
8Double conventional tillage80.5
9Shallow30.2
10Deep chisel30.2
Agroforestry (8.6 %, 129)1Multipurpose tree species with multistorey cropping1097.3
2Homegardens201.3
Water conservation (6.5 %, 98)1Other water conservation techniques281.9
2Maintaining raised beds, tied ridges and ditches241.6
3Alternative wet—dry rice irrigation181.2
4Partial root zone90.6
5Intermittent submergent irrigation (shallow water for pre- and middle tillering stage, field sun drying for late tillering stage, then shallow water again until ripening stage)90.6
6Drip irrigation60.4
7Wastewater/treated sewage effluent (TSU)40.3
Weed management (2.8 %, 42)1Herbicides/fungicides221.5
2Mechanical140.9
3Crop residues40.3
4Wide seedling spacing10.1
5Burning10.1
Cover crops (5 %, 75)1Legumes503.3
2Shaded patches251.7
Pest management (2.5 %, 38)1Insecticide221.5
2Integrated, including neem161.1
Mulching (1.4 %, 21)1Surface crop residue retention171.1
2Plastic Film Mulched (PFM)40.3
Fallowing (5.6 %, 84)1Dry795.3
2Wet50.3
Erosion control (1.3 %, 20)1Terracing110.7
2Revegetating slopes90.6
Restoration (2.8 %, 42)1Re/afforestation [incl. some rotational woodlots (three studies)]342.3
2Other80.5
Passive interventions (3.1 %, 46)1Maintaining biodiversity on farms161.1
2Fire management including supporting natural burning regimes130.9
3Carbon sequestration120.8
4Nutrient cycling by maintaining termite mounds within cultivated areas50.3
Pollination management (1.6 %, 24)1Hand pollination, camel hair brush, glass rod tapered, match stick or provision of beehives241.6
Mosaic/matrix management (4.5 %, 67)1Wild/natural vegetation within/adjacent farmlands573.8
2Set aside areas such as buffer strips, alleys, hedgerows or field margins100.7
Crop rotation (6 %, 90)1Relay cropping/shifting cultivation906.0
Intercropping (1.3 %, 20)1Push pull systems, legumes and cereals/fruit trees, N fixing trees with cardamom201.3
 Total  1504100
  1. The overall total (n = 1504) is more than 746, because some studies assessed more than one conservation land management intervention
  2. hh household