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Table 4 Conservation land management interventions studied

From: What evidence exists for the effectiveness of on-farm conservation land management strategies for preserving ecosystem services in developing countries? A systematic map

Group Rank Conservation land management intervention No. %
Organic fertiliser (23.8 %, 358) 1 Farm yard manure (pig, poultry, cattle)/compost 154 10.2
2 Urea 71 4.7
3 Crop residues 66 4.4
4 Leaf/green manure 27 1.8
5 Lime (incl. dolomite)/ash (coal and volcanic soils) 14 0.9
6 Biochar 13 0.9
7 Vermiculture 8 0.5
8 Waste (slaughterhouse/human effluent/biogas slurry/vinasse/distillery hh waste) 5 0.3
Tillage (23.3 %, 350) 1 No till 141 9.4
2 Single conventional tillage 111 7.4
3 Disk harrow/plough 30 2.0
4 Minimum (incl. ripping and direct seeding) 16 1.1
5 Ridge/basin 15 1.0
6 Rotivar 15 1.0
7 Mouldboard/base/country plough 8 0.5
8 Double conventional tillage 8 0.5
9 Shallow 3 0.2
10 Deep chisel 3 0.2
Agroforestry (8.6 %, 129) 1 Multipurpose tree species with multistorey cropping 109 7.3
2 Homegardens 20 1.3
Water conservation (6.5 %, 98) 1 Other water conservation techniques 28 1.9
2 Maintaining raised beds, tied ridges and ditches 24 1.6
3 Alternative wet—dry rice irrigation 18 1.2
4 Partial root zone 9 0.6
5 Intermittent submergent irrigation (shallow water for pre- and middle tillering stage, field sun drying for late tillering stage, then shallow water again until ripening stage) 9 0.6
6 Drip irrigation 6 0.4
7 Wastewater/treated sewage effluent (TSU) 4 0.3
Weed management (2.8 %, 42) 1 Herbicides/fungicides 22 1.5
2 Mechanical 14 0.9
3 Crop residues 4 0.3
4 Wide seedling spacing 1 0.1
5 Burning 1 0.1
Cover crops (5 %, 75) 1 Legumes 50 3.3
2 Shaded patches 25 1.7
Pest management (2.5 %, 38) 1 Insecticide 22 1.5
2 Integrated, including neem 16 1.1
Mulching (1.4 %, 21) 1 Surface crop residue retention 17 1.1
2 Plastic Film Mulched (PFM) 4 0.3
Fallowing (5.6 %, 84) 1 Dry 79 5.3
2 Wet 5 0.3
Erosion control (1.3 %, 20) 1 Terracing 11 0.7
2 Revegetating slopes 9 0.6
Restoration (2.8 %, 42) 1 Re/afforestation [incl. some rotational woodlots (three studies)] 34 2.3
2 Other 8 0.5
Passive interventions (3.1 %, 46) 1 Maintaining biodiversity on farms 16 1.1
2 Fire management including supporting natural burning regimes 13 0.9
3 Carbon sequestration 12 0.8
4 Nutrient cycling by maintaining termite mounds within cultivated areas 5 0.3
Pollination management (1.6 %, 24) 1 Hand pollination, camel hair brush, glass rod tapered, match stick or provision of beehives 24 1.6
Mosaic/matrix management (4.5 %, 67) 1 Wild/natural vegetation within/adjacent farmlands 57 3.8
2 Set aside areas such as buffer strips, alleys, hedgerows or field margins 10 0.7
Crop rotation (6 %, 90) 1 Relay cropping/shifting cultivation 90 6.0
Intercropping (1.3 %, 20) 1 Push pull systems, legumes and cereals/fruit trees, N fixing trees with cardamom 20 1.3
 Total    1504 100
  1. The overall total (n = 1504) is more than 746, because some studies assessed more than one conservation land management intervention
  2. hh household