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Table 8 Indicators measured in studies

From: What evidence exists for the effectiveness of on-farm conservation land management strategies for preserving ecosystem services in developing countries? A systematic map

RankChemical indicatorsNo%Physical indicatorsNo%Biological indicatorsNo%Social indicatorsNo%Economic indicatorsNo%
1Soil organic carbon (SOC)33317.4Bulk density15420.0Yielda 27339.5Pest incidence2317.6Income5435.3
2Nitrogen (N)31016.2Soil texture/particle size13617.7Diversity/richness10915.8Fuel wood use1813.7Farm inputs3422.2
3Phosphorus (P)23012.0Water holding capacity/soil moisture retention9812.7Community abundance8011.6Medicinal value1410.7Labour days2315.0
4Potassium (K)19710.3Soil type9712.6Microbial Biomass Content (MBC)375.4Water quality129.2Farm size2214.4
5pH1899.9Temperature516.6Below ground biomass334.8Perception of soil quality (SOC)96.9Livestock ownership74.6
6Total carbon (TC)1357.0Soil porosity334.3Stem density/diameter314.5HH size/type86.1Cropping intensity53.3
7Carbon dioxide (CO2)824.3Runoff and soil loss (for leaching)293.8Litter243.5Edible wild species75.3Alt. livelihoods32.0
8Magnesium (Mg)412.1Water use efficiency (WUE)293.8Fruit set233.3Ethnic group64.6Shade21.3
9Nitrous Oxide (N20)361.9Water infiltration rate212.7Survival rate of trees121.7Village64.6Market access10.7
10Nitrate (NO3)341.8Altitude152.0Crop height111.6Food security53.8Credit10.7
11Boron (B)321.7Turbidity/water stable aggregates121.6Species mass, sex, age91.3Recreational value53.8Stumpage fee10.7
12Heavy metals (e.g. Cd,Cu,Pb,Cr,Zn,Ni)301.6Base saturation121.6Seedling density81.2Ornamental value53.8   
13Chlorine (Cl)301.6Electric conductivity (for solids)111.4Basal stand71.0Farmer’s assoc32.3   
14Methane (CH4)291.5Soil colour101.3Flower visitation rate71.0Sacred sites21.5   
15Dissolved Organic Carbon251.3Soil depth101.3Macro-faunal activity71.0Climate regulation21.5   
16Soil enzymes (e.g. acid phosphatase)221.2Slope gradient91.2Species body/tail/wing length60.9Educational value21.5   
17C:N ratio211.1Rainfall81.0Fine root production50.7Land tenure21.5   
18Cation exchange capability211.1Distance to natural areas70.9Weed growth30.4Ritual artefacts10.8   
19Calcium (Ca)170.9Light intensity/radiation60.8Above ground biomass30.4Fodder10.8   
20Electric conductivity (liquids) (EC)150.8Humidity/water vapour40.5Rhizodeposition20.3      
21Ammonium (NH4-)120.6Erosion control40.5Leaf area index20.3      
22Salinity/sodium/salt (NaCl)110.6Evaporation/transpiration30.4         
23Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)90.5Groundwater depth30.4         
24Ammonia (NH3)70.4Aspect20.3         
25Aluminium (Al)70.4Surface flow20.3         
26Soluble/crude protein or starch, carbohydrates70.4Patch size20.3         
27Hydron (H +)60.3Respiration10.1         
28Polyphenol content, lignin, cellulose50.3            
29Sulphur (S)50.3            
30Total soluble sugar (CnH2nOn)50.3            
31Iron (Fe)40.2            
32Exchangeable sodium  % (ESP)40.2            
33Sulfate (SO4)30.2            
34Amino sugars20.1            
35Residual selenium10.1            
36Cholorphyll10.1            
37Dissolved oxygen (DO)10.1            
TOTAL1919100 769100 692100 131100 153100
  1. The overall totals are more than 746 because all studies assess multiple indicators
  2. TC total carbon including inorganic, Walkley–Black carbon, Labile carbon, particulate organic carbon, total organic carbon, HH household
  3. aYield was typically measured in kg/ha)