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Table 8 Indicators measured in studies

From: What evidence exists for the effectiveness of on-farm conservation land management strategies for preserving ecosystem services in developing countries? A systematic map

Rank Chemical indicators No % Physical indicators No % Biological indicators No % Social indicators No % Economic indicators No %
1 Soil organic carbon (SOC) 333 17.4 Bulk density 154 20.0 Yielda 273 39.5 Pest incidence 23 17.6 Income 54 35.3
2 Nitrogen (N) 310 16.2 Soil texture/particle size 136 17.7 Diversity/richness 109 15.8 Fuel wood use 18 13.7 Farm inputs 34 22.2
3 Phosphorus (P) 230 12.0 Water holding capacity/soil moisture retention 98 12.7 Community abundance 80 11.6 Medicinal value 14 10.7 Labour days 23 15.0
4 Potassium (K) 197 10.3 Soil type 97 12.6 Microbial Biomass Content (MBC) 37 5.4 Water quality 12 9.2 Farm size 22 14.4
5 pH 189 9.9 Temperature 51 6.6 Below ground biomass 33 4.8 Perception of soil quality (SOC) 9 6.9 Livestock ownership 7 4.6
6 Total carbon (TC) 135 7.0 Soil porosity 33 4.3 Stem density/diameter 31 4.5 HH size/type 8 6.1 Cropping intensity 5 3.3
7 Carbon dioxide (CO2) 82 4.3 Runoff and soil loss (for leaching) 29 3.8 Litter 24 3.5 Edible wild species 7 5.3 Alt. livelihoods 3 2.0
8 Magnesium (Mg) 41 2.1 Water use efficiency (WUE) 29 3.8 Fruit set 23 3.3 Ethnic group 6 4.6 Shade 2 1.3
9 Nitrous Oxide (N20) 36 1.9 Water infiltration rate 21 2.7 Survival rate of trees 12 1.7 Village 6 4.6 Market access 1 0.7
10 Nitrate (NO3) 34 1.8 Altitude 15 2.0 Crop height 11 1.6 Food security 5 3.8 Credit 1 0.7
11 Boron (B) 32 1.7 Turbidity/water stable aggregates 12 1.6 Species mass, sex, age 9 1.3 Recreational value 5 3.8 Stumpage fee 1 0.7
12 Heavy metals (e.g. Cd,Cu,Pb,Cr,Zn,Ni) 30 1.6 Base saturation 12 1.6 Seedling density 8 1.2 Ornamental value 5 3.8    
13 Chlorine (Cl) 30 1.6 Electric conductivity (for solids) 11 1.4 Basal stand 7 1.0 Farmer’s assoc 3 2.3    
14 Methane (CH4) 29 1.5 Soil colour 10 1.3 Flower visitation rate 7 1.0 Sacred sites 2 1.5    
15 Dissolved Organic Carbon 25 1.3 Soil depth 10 1.3 Macro-faunal activity 7 1.0 Climate regulation 2 1.5    
16 Soil enzymes (e.g. acid phosphatase) 22 1.2 Slope gradient 9 1.2 Species body/tail/wing length 6 0.9 Educational value 2 1.5    
17 C:N ratio 21 1.1 Rainfall 8 1.0 Fine root production 5 0.7 Land tenure 2 1.5    
18 Cation exchange capability 21 1.1 Distance to natural areas 7 0.9 Weed growth 3 0.4 Ritual artefacts 1 0.8    
19 Calcium (Ca) 17 0.9 Light intensity/radiation 6 0.8 Above ground biomass 3 0.4 Fodder 1 0.8    
20 Electric conductivity (liquids) (EC) 15 0.8 Humidity/water vapour 4 0.5 Rhizodeposition 2 0.3       
21 Ammonium (NH4-) 12 0.6 Erosion control 4 0.5 Leaf area index 2 0.3       
22 Salinity/sodium/salt (NaCl) 11 0.6 Evaporation/transpiration 3 0.4          
23 Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) 9 0.5 Groundwater depth 3 0.4          
24 Ammonia (NH3) 7 0.4 Aspect 2 0.3          
25 Aluminium (Al) 7 0.4 Surface flow 2 0.3          
26 Soluble/crude protein or starch, carbohydrates 7 0.4 Patch size 2 0.3          
27 Hydron (H +) 6 0.3 Respiration 1 0.1          
28 Polyphenol content, lignin, cellulose 5 0.3             
29 Sulphur (S) 5 0.3             
30 Total soluble sugar (CnH2nOn) 5 0.3             
31 Iron (Fe) 4 0.2             
32 Exchangeable sodium  % (ESP) 4 0.2             
33 Sulfate (SO4) 3 0.2             
34 Amino sugars 2 0.1             
35 Residual selenium 1 0.1             
36 Cholorphyll 1 0.1             
37 Dissolved oxygen (DO) 1 0.1             
TOTAL 1919 100   769 100   692 100   131 100   153 100
  1. The overall totals are more than 746 because all studies assess multiple indicators
  2. TC total carbon including inorganic, Walkley–Black carbon, Labile carbon, particulate organic carbon, total organic carbon, HH household
  3. aYield was typically measured in kg/ha)