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Table 3 Potential outcomes of systematic conservation planning arranged according to capitals

From: What is the extent and distribution of evidence on effectiveness of systematic conservation planning around the globe? A systematic map protocol

CapitalDefinitionOutcome sub-category
NaturalThe stock and flow of goods and services provided by ecosystems, including the diversity of species, regulating processes, and supporting services [73]Representation of biodiversity
Reduction in loss or degradation of natural values
Persistence of biodiversity
Maintenance of ecosystem services
FinancialThe gain or loss of cash, property or assets that represent the economic value of an individual or organizationTransparency in conservation investments
Efficiency of operations
Maximised benefit given limited budget
Leverage of additional funds or in-kind support
SocialRepresents the relationships and interactions between individuals and groups [74]Collaboration among agencies
Coordination between different actors
Trust in planning process
Sharing datasets between agencies
Shared vision
Attitudes of stakeholders
Power dynamics between stakeholders
HumanKnowledge or skills that enable people to develop strategies to achieve their objectives [75]Raised awareness of biodiversity or conservation
New knowledge of ecological or social values
Learning applied in future plans
InstitutionalCapacity, structure, or functioning of institutions through formal (e.g. laws) or informal means (e.g. local governance practices) [76]Influence on future decision making by organisation or partners
Self-sustaining strategies
Role of implementing agency
Consideration of conservation issues in decision making by other sectors
Integration of priorities into policies, conventions or legislation
Influence on resource-use planning
Protected areas expanded
  1. Categories adapted from the typology developed by Bottrill and Pressey [32]