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Table 1 PICO elements of the systematic review

From: China’s conversion of cropland to forest program: a systematic review of the environmental and socioeconomic effects

Population (s) Intervention (s) Comparator (s) Outcome (s)
CCFP enrolled lands (cropland/wasteland/ecological trees/economic trees) CCFP (subsidies, skill-training, and enforcement with field checks) Non-enrolled sloping lands, and lands prior to CCFP implementation Environmental outcomes (changes in water discharge, soil erosion, flood risk, local biodiversity, etc.)
CCFP households and their individual members CCFP (subsidies, skill-training, and enforcement with field checks) Non-participant households, and households prior to CCFP implementation Socioeconomic outcomes (changes in household income structure, migration, etc.)