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Table 1 PICO elements of the systematic review

From: China’s conversion of cropland to forest program: a systematic review of the environmental and socioeconomic effects

Population (s)Intervention (s)Comparator (s)Outcome (s)
CCFP enrolled lands (cropland/wasteland/ecological trees/economic trees)CCFP (subsidies, skill-training, and enforcement with field checks)Non-enrolled sloping lands, and lands prior to CCFP implementationEnvironmental outcomes (changes in water discharge, soil erosion, flood risk, local biodiversity, etc.)
CCFP households and their individual membersCCFP (subsidies, skill-training, and enforcement with field checks)Non-participant households, and households prior to CCFP implementationSocioeconomic outcomes (changes in household income structure, migration, etc.)