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Table 1 Eligibility criteria (reproduced from Cerutti et al. [14])

From: The environmental, socioeconomic, and health impacts of woodfuel value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic map

Populations Exposurea Comparators Outcomes
Forests, woodlands, and shrublands (natural or planted), or farmlands, agroforests or landscapes consisting of the mixtures of those that supply firewood and charcoal in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
Wood energy value chain participants (as specific economic groups): collectors, producers, traders, intermediate and final consumers in SSA
Production, collecting, harvesting, processing, trading and consumption of woodfuel
(Note: Production practices can include managed coppice systems, plantation forestry, assisted natural regeneration, and agroforestry)
Before or without woodfuel production, collection, harvesting, processing, trading or consumption activities
Before or without substitute or alternative technologies (kilns and cookstoves) that affect demand/supply of woodfuel
Environmental impacts, including deforestation, forest degradation, forest regeneration, and other changes in tree cover
Secondary impacts on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration/carbon stocks, and non-carbon ecosystem services, water flow, erosion/sedimentation, biodiversity
Socio-economic impacts on woodfuel value chain participants and such as changes in employment, assets, income
Health impacts on woodfuel value chain participants such as pollution and illness
  1. aAlthough we used the term “intervention” in the protocol [14] exposure is in fact a more appropriate characterization for the woodfuel value chain activities under examination, as intervention implies an action that is deliberately introduced into a situation. These value chain activities are ongoing and rarely can we pinpoint an exact start or end date to their implementation; the use of “exposure” thus captures the contingent nature of these activities