Skip to main content


Table 1 Proposed search string for the execution of the searches

From: The effectiveness of spawning habitat creation or enhancement for substrate spawning temperate fish: a systematic review protocol

  Search string
Population terms ((Fish* OR Substrate Spawn* OR Substratum OR Benth* OR Lithophil* OR Phytophil* OR Salmo* OR Centrarchid* OR Catostomid* OR Acipenserid* OR Percid* OR Ictalurid* OR Trout OR Sturgeon OR Char* OR Esocid*) AND (Marine OR “Fresh water” OR Freshwater OR Stream* OR Creek* OR Water* OR River* OR Lake* OR Reservoir* OR Pond* OR Canal* OR Wetland* OR Channel* OR Aquatic))
Intervention terms (Restor* OR Rehabilitat* OR Offset* OR Transplant* OR Enhance* OR Excavat* OR Augment* OR Compensat* OR Improve* OR Mitigat* OR Creat* or Modif*) AND (Gravel OR Sand OR Cobble OR Boulder OR Substrate OR Vegetation OR Wood$ OR Structur* OR Flow* OR Plant* OR Artificial* OR Riffle$ AND Habitat*)
Outcome terms ((Abundan* OR Biomass OR Productiv* OR Fertiliz* OR Densit* OR Surviv* OR Rear* OR Spawning Rate*) AND (Hatch* OR Spawn* OR Nest* OR Juvenile* OR Redd$ OR Embryo* OR Egg* OR Roe* OR Fry))
  1. The asterisk (*) is a wildcard and represents any characters (e.g., restor* includes restore, restores, restoring, restoration) while the dollar sign ($) includes zero or one character (e.g., boulder$ includes boulder and boulders). Broad search terms such as “fish”, “substrate spawn”, as well as spawning strategies, were included in an attempt to capture studies of every relevant species. Since it was not feasible to include every possible relevant species name, based on the recommendations of the Advisory Team, some family names and genera of species commonly targeted for restoration studies were included. Based on preliminary scoping exercises, search results were found to be more inclusive when including these family and genera names given that these specific names were combined with “fish” using the operator “OR”