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Box 1 P.R.I.M.E.—pathways toward prosperity (adapted from [47])

From: What is the evidence for the contribution of forests to poverty alleviation? A systematic map protocol

Five complementary pathways may help launch individuals and communities onto a sustainable path toward prosperity. These pathways, referred to as P.R.I.M.E., identify economic development strategies and build on the premise that forests themselves will remain intact

PRODUCTIVITY Growth in labor and resource productivity (P) is integral to economic development. In forested landscapes, labor productivity can be improved by augmenting individual and community skills in sustainable forest management. Resource productivity can be enhanced through capital infusion (for instance, portable saw mills for timber harvesting), forest fire and pest management or tree plantations. Any associated technologies and capacity strengthening activities would need to meet the needs of women, indigenous people and other marginalized households for the poorest to benefit

RIGHTS Wealth accumulation is a traditional pathway out of poverty. Thus, a second strategy is to increase the wealth of the poor by strengthening their rights (R) over natural capital. A large literature and local environmental movements point to the importance of community rights to use and sell forest resources in poverty reduction. Within forested communities, empowering women and other marginalized individuals with tenure rights and decision-making power is particularly important for poverty reduction

INVESTMENTS Poverty reduction in forested landscapes will not be possible without serious investments (I) in complementary institutions and public services. Forest-related pathways to prosperity are only likely if the poor also have inclusive and affordable access to complementary public services such as education, health, agricultural extension, transportation and mobile phone access. The role of gender-responsive institutional arrangements in providing information, enabling local level innovation and offering insurance from down-side risks will be important

MARKETS Income generation and diversification requires strengthening small and medium enterprises and increasing access to markets (M) for producers of timber and non-timber products. Markets for high-value non-timber forest products (e.g. Brazil or Shea nuts) offer one pathway that is likely to be beneficial to men and women. Timber certification and growth in export markets for small-holder wood products offer an alternate broader approach. This pathway may require support to producers to organize themselves to engage with larger markets

ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystems and their hidden services (E) are integral to prosperity. Over the last decade, a number of policy instruments have been developed to manage ecosystem services and strengthen their contribution to income and livelihoods. It is important to channel this increased recognition of and demand for ecosystem services into monetary and non-monetary benefits to the poor, and women within poor households