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Table 2 Categories and subcategories of forest sector programs and policies with definitions

From: What is the evidence for the contribution of forests to poverty alleviation? A systematic map protocol





Actions to increase the short and long term production of forest resources (focusing on timber and NTFPs) and productivity and skills of resource harvesters and collectors

Forest management

Includes: Forests that consist predominantly of indigenous vegetation, and with active management to increase the frequency and productivity of beneficial species. The management will include felling (trimming, thinning in addition to regular harvesting), forest restoration/regeneration (planting or/and seeding in process of afforestation or reforestation), fire surveillance, pest management and training and capacity building and training for these activities. Can include state, community, private sector and household controlled forests managed for timber and NTFP production. May include protected areas and buffer areas, if they allow harvest of forest resources. Also includes plantation forests


Includes: Land-use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) are deliberately used on the same land-management units as agricultural crops and/or animals, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. This includes practices such as silvopasture and home gardens. In agroforestry systems there are both ecological and economical interactions between different components

Habitat management

Includes: Management of forest habitats to provide sustained ecosystem services, viable habitat for other non-extractive resources (e.g. livestock)

Rights and empowerment

Actions to strengthen formal and/or informal rights and responsibilities of forest-dependent communities and forest managers


Includes: tenure rights (community, private, state-owned), use policies (forests and watershed), decentralization, forest user groups, forest department reform, forest acts and laws, monitoring, compliance, and enforcement (and associated consequences) that enable forest management and use of forests

Individual rights/empowerment

Includes: property rights, access, participation in decision making (at the individual level)


Actions to provide and enhance non-forest investments, public services and institutions in areas close to forests in order to contribute to livelihoods of forest-dependent communities

Produced capital

Includes: Building/investing in infrastructure (incl. roads, energy, telecommunications, water, sanitation); investing in equipment and machinery (improved cook stoves, biogas, substituting propagated products for wild products) as well as building/investing infrastructure for complementary activities (incl., tourism facilities, hydropower plants, and water treatment plants)

Human capital

Includes: education, health communication, awareness building, and agricultural skills

Social capital

Includes: Developing/building informal as well as formal institutions (incl. community councils, women’s/youth groups, arbitration/courts middlemen/traders, service providers and credit/saving services). Identification, development and expansion of private sector agreements as well as industry practices and standards


Actions to add value to forest products (especially timber and NTFPs) and enhance access to wider markets

Linked enterprises and livelihood alternatives

Includes: forest-linked industries (e.g. sawmills, furniture making); NTFP value addition and sale

Identifying and strengthening market forces

Includes: certification of forest products (e.g. FSC, PEFC), value chain analyses; forest funds, forest taxes

Increasing access to markets

Includes: forest producer networks that seek to combine forces to access markets; credit access for entrepreneurs (e.g. timber producers)


Actions to manage ecosystem services and promote their contribution to livelihoods and income

Managing and enhancing ecosystem services

Includes: Management and enhancement of ecosystem services for payments schemes (PES, REDD+ etc.) and ecotourism; can include identification, establishment or expansion of parks and other legally protected areas for improved management of ecosystem services

Strengthening institutions and markets

Includes: Establishment of regulatory and monitoring systems to enable the creation of payment schemes (e.g. set up of benefit sharing mechanism, MRV system); Expansion of ecotourism actors, institutional arrangements for REDD+ and PES schemes

Identifying non-monetary benefits

Includes: cultural and spiritual valuation of forests (e.g. designating sacred groves); valuation of forest services to support PES schemes (e.g. for REDD+, hydropower, water provision)

  1. The definitions are synthesized and adapted from the forestry LSMS sourcebook [46], the P.R.I.M.E. framework [47], and the IUCN Conservation Measures Partnership Classification of Direct Actions version 2.0 [50]