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Table 3 Categories and subcategories of poverty outcome measures

From: What is the evidence for the contribution of forests to poverty alleviation? A systematic map protocol




Forest income and consumption

Monetary forest income—direct sale of goods

Individual/household monetary income from direct sale of forest goods

Monetary forest income—wage labor

Individual/household monetary income from forest-based wage labor

Monetary forest income—value addition/entrepreneurship

Individual/household/community monetary income from value addition to forest products and/or entrepreneurship

Physical forest income—consumption

Individual/household physical income from consumption of forest goods


Financial capital—credit, savings and debt

Value of individual assets from forest sources

Natural capital—forest assets with access/use, sale and exclusion rights

Stock of forest asset individual has access right to

Natural capital—land assets with access/use, sale and exclusion rights

Stock of land asset individual has access right to

Physical capital—forest-based material assets

Stock of physical forest-based assets individual has access to

Human capital—forest-based knowledge and skills

Individual knowledge and skills associated with uptake of forest-based intervention or improvement of practices


Measures of physical health, disease prevalence, and access to healthcare

Social capital (including inequality, conflict, and empowerment of women and marginalized groups)

Measures of social resources that people draw on to make a living, such as relationships with either more powerful people (vertical connections) or with others like themselves (horizontal connections), or membership of groups or organizations. Generally relationships of trust, reciprocity and exchange that the poor can draw on in times of need, and that lower the costs of working productively together