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Table 1 Different approaches to process design in knowledge production

From: Knowledge production and environmental conflict: managing systematic reviews and maps for constructive outcomes

  Normal science Post-normal science Conflict management
Question Well-defined problem
Closed-framed question
Wicked problem
Stakeholder-negotiated question(s)
Potentially irreconcilable problem definitions
Co-existing diverging questions
Evidence Published scientific and grey literature
Quantitative and qualitative scientific analysis
Filling primary data gaps highlighted by stakeholders
Exploring interpretations through social learning
Evidence generation integrated in process design, e.g. via joint fact-finding
Facilitated exploration of the role of different types of knowledge
Review team Experts
Scientific independence
Involving stakeholders in framing the process, e.g. identifying research questions
Consensus seeking
Stakeholders are the experts and directly involved in answering the questions
Building mutual understanding of disagreements
Stakeholder group Consultation role only
Identified based on pre-defined problem
Decision-making authority
Involvement prior to problem definition
Stakeholders may not agree to form a group—distinct meetings instead
Facilitation aiming at equality in practice among different stakeholders
  1. Inspired by the outline of methodological steps in systematic reviews and maps [1], this table highlights issues that need to be considered in the planning of any assessment of knowledge