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Table 1 Different approaches to process design in knowledge production

From: Knowledge production and environmental conflict: managing systematic reviews and maps for constructive outcomes

  Normal science Post-normal science Conflict management
Question Well-defined problem Closed-framed question Wicked problem Stakeholder-negotiated question(s) Potentially irreconcilable problem definitions Co-existing diverging questions
Evidence Published scientific and grey literature Quantitative and qualitative scientific analysis Filling primary data gaps highlighted by stakeholders Exploring interpretations through social learning Evidence generation integrated in process design, e.g. via joint fact-finding Facilitated exploration of the role of different types of knowledge
Review team Experts Scientific independence Involving stakeholders in framing the process, e.g. identifying research questions Consensus seeking Stakeholders are the experts and directly involved in answering the questions Building mutual understanding of disagreements
Stakeholder group Consultation role only Identified based on pre-defined problem Decision-making authority Involvement prior to problem definition Stakeholders may not agree to form a group—distinct meetings instead Facilitation aiming at equality in practice among different stakeholders
  1. Inspired by the outline of methodological steps in systematic reviews and maps [1], this table highlights issues that need to be considered in the planning of any assessment of knowledge