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Table 1 Types of health impacts associated with contact with alien plants and animals considered within the remit of this systematic map

From: Evidence for changes in the occurrence, frequency or severity of human health impacts resulting from exposure to alien species in Europe: a systematic map

Type of contactExample impacts associated with alien plant speciesExample impacts associated with alien animal species
Impacts arising from direct contactSkin blistering resulting from contact with Heracleum mantegazzianum sapBites e.g. from Aedes albopictus; stings from Vespa velutina
Impacts arising from indirect contactAllergic rhinitis resulting from contact with pollen from Ambrosia artemisiifolia Pseudo allergic reaction to urticating setae produced by Thaumetopoea processionea
Impacts arising from the transmission of pests or pathogens by the alien speciesn/aMalaria from introduced mosquito bites; Lyme disease transmitted by ticks spread by Eutamias sibiricus