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Table 3 Summary of studies demonstrating a change in the occurrence, frequency or severity of human health impacts resulting from exposure to alien species in Europe

From: Evidence for changes in the occurrence, frequency or severity of human health impacts resulting from exposure to alien species in Europe: a systematic map

Aedes aegypti Disease transmission—dengue feverMadeiraOutbreak with 1891 cases of dengue fever in 2012 following introduction of A. aegypti in 2005[15]
Aedes albopictus Disease transmission—dengue feverFranceTwo cases of Dengue fever presented in adult males in France with no recent history of international travel. A. albopictus has been established since 2004[16]
Aedes albopictus Disease transmission—dengue feverCroatiaTwo cases of dengue fever in Croatia, one in a German tourist and a second in a local resident, were identified in 2010. Serological assessment suggested at least seven other recent cases. A. albopictus was first recorded in Croatia in 2004[17, 46]
Aedes albopictus Disease transmission—Chikungunya virusItalyOver 200 cases in two contiguous villages in Italy. In most cases the disease was fairly mild, with one reported death. The virus was identified in A. albopictus suggesting local transmission[18]
Aedes albopictus Disease transmission—Chikungunya virusFranceTwo female children developed Chikungunya after being bitten at a sleep over near to an imported case, suggesting local transmission[19]
Aedes japonicus Nuisance behaviourSwitzerlandSeveral reports of biting and nuisance behaviour identified as recently established A. japonicus [30]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia Allergy—increasing sensitisationAustriaOf 13,719 atopic patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2007, the frequency of ragweed pollen sensitization increased from 8.5% in 1997 to 17.5% in 2007[25]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia Allergy—increasing sensitisationItalyIncrease in the proportion of patients aged <20 years becoming allergic to ragweed was observed in a study of 665 patients over 15 years, from 0% 1990–1996 to 18% during the last 10 years[26]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia Allergy—increasing sensitisationGermanyTwenty A. artemisiifolia scouts (tasked with finding and eliminating the weed) were assessed, and despite close contact to A. artemisiifolia over a median of 13.8 months, none of the participants became sensitized or allergic to it[27]
Arthropods—mosquitoes, multipleNuisance bitingUKNo evidence of nuisance biting attributable to alien mosquitoes over a 10 year period according to a survey of local authorities[29]
Ostreopsis ovata Respiratory problems and skin irritationItalyFirst cases reported in 2003/2004, in 2005 around 200 people affected by respiratory symptoms resulting from exposure to sea spray containing toxins from O. ovata [21, 22]
* after [24]
Ostreopsis ovata Respiratory problems and skin irritationSpainMultiple cases resulting from exposure to O. ovata toxins[23] and Barroso García et al. [47] as cited in [24]
Ostreopsis ovata Respiratory problems and skin irritationFranceFive out of nine recorded blooms between 2006 and 2009 led to symptoms in divers, swimmers, and shoreline inhabitants, with a total of 47 patients presenting symptoms[24]
Thaumetopoea processionea Itchy dermatitisUKNumerous cases of itchy rashes reported to the environmental health officer associated with T. processionea caterpillars on nearby oak trees[20]
Vespa velutina StingsFranceA survey of French poison centres in 20 Departments showed no increase in the number of reported hymenoptera stings following the introduction of V. velutina [28]
Vespa velutina StingsFranceOne case report where a patient suffered severe symptoms after being stung by V. velutina 12 times on the head[28]