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Box 3 Thinking and communication processes analogous to developing a question or conceptual framework for systematic reviewing [18]

From: Transdisciplinary working to shape systematic reviews and interpret the findings: commentary

Qualitative analysis Non-directive counselling
Analysing primary data or reports of qualitative research involves asking questions [20] or synthesising qualitative studies [21] with questions: Questions focused on learning and implications for action [22, 24] involve:
• That sensitise the researchers to the landscape of interest—what is going on here, who is involved, how do they define the situation, what does it mean to them, are their definitions and meanings the same or different, what are they all doing (the same or differently) and why? • Asking open ended questions to encourage talk and reflection on specific examples
• That explore recurring themes as stakeholders talk • Adopting the stakeholders’ own language
• About processes, variation, connections (or assumptions) about key concepts, changes over time and pertinent structural influence • Asking future oriented questions about how stakeholders would use the evidence
• About exceptions or contradictions; and • Provoking thinking, demanding clarification and challenging assumptions
• About where to look for evidence and how to recognise it in different contexts • summarising responses to confirm understanding, invite correction and introduce language that links with wider understandings
  • Interrupting repetition or vague assertions
  • Moving the conversation on; and
  • Getting to the crux of the matter and articulating the main focus