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Table 2 Systematic reviews and maps conducted in the context of the GRACE project

From: Inclusive development and prioritization of review questions in a highly controversial field of regulatory science

GMO impact area Research question SR/SM Ref.a
Health What are the characteristics of comparative studies of assessment of key chemical crop constituents in GM crops compared to non‐GM crops? SM b
What evidence has been collected on the potential toxicity of newly proteins in experimental animals, and what were the characteristics of these studies? SM b
What is the evidence for a changed risk of allergic reactions to an allergenic crop after it has been genetically modified? SM b
What are the characteristics of repeated‐dose feeding studies with experimental animals receiving whole food or feed products derived from genetically modified (GM) crops and non‐GM counterpart as a control focusing on potential health impacts other than performance? SM b
Environmental Does the growing of Bt maize change abundance or ecological function of non-target animals compared to the growing of non-GM maize? SR [25]
What are the effects of the cultivation of GM herbicide tolerant crops on botanical diversity? SR [26]
Are population abundances and biomasses of soil invertebrates changed by Bt crops compared with conventional crops? SR [27]
Are soil microbial endpoints changed by Bt crops compared with conventional crops? SR [28]
How susceptible are different lepidopteran/coleopteran maize pests to Bt-proteins? SR [29, 32]
What is the evidence on the inheritance of resistance alleles in populations of lepidopteran/coleopteran maize pest species? SM [30]
Socio-economic What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? SM [31]
What is the impact of trade restrictions of GM products in different countries on the competitiveness of different partner countries and corresponding sectors in comparison to a situation where there are no restrictions on GM trade? SR c
What is the impact of the introduction of GM crops on the welfare effects in different countries in comparison to a situation where there are restrictions on GM cultivation? SR c
What is the impact on GM regulation of different political actors and other drivers in the EU in comparison to the situation in the US? SM c
  1. Ref references, SM systematic map, SR systematic review
  2. aProtocols for seven systematic reviews or maps resp. and results of one systematic review were published at the time of writing this article. Preliminary results of the systematic reviews and maps are also available from GRACE Stakeholder Consultation Reports and from the final conference [21, 24]
  3. bPublication of protocols is in preparation
  4. cProtocols will not be published as journal papers as they are considered to be out of scope for the main journals publishing evidence synthesis protocols