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Table 2 Anticipated outcome metrics

From: Impacts of selected Ecological Focus Area options in European farmed landscapes on climate regulation and pollination services: a systematic map protocol

Type of metric Climate regulation Pollination
Proxy measure Measurements of organic carbon storage in soil or biomass. Greenhouse gas emissions including CO2, N2O and CH4 Modelled pollination service based on land cover. Proportions of nitrogen fixing crops in the diet of potential pollinators
Stock Stocks of organic carbon in the soil or biomass Abundance and/or diversity of pollinating insects
Flow Sequestration of organic carbon in the soil or biomass. Emissions of greenhouse gases Seed set, fruit set of crop plants or wild flowering plants. Either pollination deficit (measured by experimentally enhancing pollination to maximum), or current service delivery measured by experimentally excluding pollinators from flowers, or by extent of outcrossing/gene flow. This is specific to particular crop variety or plant species, and so not scalable to European scale