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Table 4 Proposed study design terms for data coding

From: Impacts of selected Ecological Focus Area options in European farmed landscapes on climate regulation and pollination services: a systematic map protocol

Term Meaning
Site comparison A study that considers effects of EFA features by comparing sites that have historically had different features or comparators
Replicated The EFA feature and comparator are repeated at more than one independent site
Paired sites Feature and comparator sites are considered in pairs, selected with similar environmental conditions, such as soil type or surrounding landscape, to reduce environmental variation
Randomized The EFA feature was allocated randomly to sites, reducing the degree of bias based on initial conditions
Before-and-after trial Outcomes were monitored before and after the EFA feature was imposed
Quantitative meta-analysis Results from several studies were collectively analyzed, following critical appraisal, to generate a combined effect size
Model simulation Outcomes are predicted using simulation models, such as greenhouse gas emission or soil carbon dynamics models