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Fig. 3 | Environmental Evidence

Fig. 3

From: Manipulating ungulate herbivory in temperate and boreal forests: effects on vegetation and invertebrates. A systematic review

Fig. 3

Responses of vegetation abundance and species richness to ungulate herbivory. The diamond-shaped symbols show summary effect sizes (standardised mean differences), with 95% confidence intervals indicated by the widths of the symbols. A positive summary effect size indicates that the abundance or richness was higher at high herbivory than at low herbivory, and vice versa. Sample sizes (n) refer to the number of comparisons on which summary effect sizes were based, with the number of independent sites (or sets of sites) given in brackets

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