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Table 7 Summary of main results of meta-analyses

From: What is the effect of prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forest on biodiversity, beyond pyrophilous and saproxylic species? A systematic review

Outcome and included studies/moderatorsUnmoderated model outputsSignificance of moderator (QM test of moderators and p-value)
Summary effect sizeCI (lower)CI (upper)p-valueBurn frequencyTime since burnForest typeBurn seasonClimate zone
1. Vascular plant richness
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 63)0.3970.0490.7440.025*QM1 = 1.231 p = 0.267QM1 = 1.105 p = 0.293QM2 = 5.598 p = 0.061QM3 = 1.827 p = 0.609QM6 = 6.003 p = 0.423
 High validity studies only (n = 11)0.143− 0.1840.3770.500
2. Non-native vascular plant richness
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 10)0.3860.1540.6190.001*QM§ = 0.003 p = 0.958QM1 = 0.001 p = 0.975NR, all studies coniferousQM2 = 2.232 p = 0.328QM4 = 2.287 p = 0.683
 High validity studies only (n = 4)0.3170.0420.5910.024*
3. Herbaceous plant richness
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 22)0.357− 0.1760.8910.189QM1 = 0.350 p = 0.554QM1 = 4.619 p = 0.032*QM2 = 10.167 p = 0.006*QM3 = 2.614 p = 0.455QM3 = 15.434 p = 0.002*
 Forest type: Broadleaf (n = 9)0.9560.4951.417< 0.001*
 Forest type: Coniferous (n = 10)0.372− 0.2701.0140.256
Forest type: mixed (n = 3)NR, only 3 comparisons
High validity studies only (n = 2)NR, only 2 comparisons     
4. Woody plant richness
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 23)− 0.253− 0.7430.2370.312QM1 = 0.023 p = 0.879QM1 = 0.138 p = 0.711QM2 = 0.107 p = 0.948QM3 = 3.465 p = 0.325QM3 = 0.474 p = 0.925
 High-validity studies only (n = 3)NR, only 3 comparisons
5. Tree richness
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 13)− 1.035− 2.0950.0260.056QM1 = 0.404 p = 0.525QM1 = 0.583 p = 0.463QM2 = 1.023 p = 0.600QM2 = 0.958 p = 0.619QM1 = 0.866 p = 0.352
 High validity studies only (n = 1)NR, only 1 comparison
6. All vascular plant diversity
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 13)− 0.065− 0.3430.2140.649QM1 = 0.692 p = 0.406QM1 = 0.303 p = 0.582QM2 = 1.132 p = 0.568QM2 = 3.620 p = 0.164QM6 = 3.857 p = 0.696
 High validity studies only (n = 4)0.055− 0.5690.6780.863
7. Fungal richness
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 5)− 1.163− 2.4200.0950.070QM1 = 0.305 p = 0.581QM1 = 0.065 p = 0.800NR, all studies coniferousQM1 = 0.008 p = 0.927QM2 = 0.497 p = 0.780
 High validity studies only (n = 3)NR, only 3 comparisons
8. Bird richness
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 6)− 0.169− 0.6950.3560.528QM1 = 0.964 p = 0.326QM1 = 1.764 p = 0.184QM2 = 1.029 p = 0.598QM3 = 2.463 p = 0.482QM2 = 1.789 p = 0.409
 High validity studies only (n = 1)NR, only 1 comparison
9. Beetle richness
 Medium and high validity studies (n = 10)0.398− 0.0970.8920.115QM1 = 3.519 p = 0.061QM1 = 2.080 p = 0.149QM1 = 0.314 p = 0.575QM1 = 2.123 p = 0.145QM2 = 0.615 p = 0.735
 High validity studies only (n = 1)NR, only 1 comparison
  1. NR not run
  2. * Significant at p < 0.05. CI = 95% confidence interval