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Table 1 Variables extracted from the publications for the systematic map of arctic herbivory

From: Evidence of effects of herbivory on Arctic vegetation: a systematic map protocol

Topic Coding variable Variable description Source
Study ID author_list List of authors P
title Title of the publication P
journal Journal or publishing house P
year Year of publication P
language Language P
evidence_point_ID ID number that separates the different evidence points within the same publication P
Study location country Country name, as specified by the authors P
locality Site name describing the locality, as specified in the study P
coordinates_N and coordinates_E Geographic coordinates as reported in the study. If needed, these can be obtained from figures or inferred from maps P
year_start Year when the study started, measuring both the plant and the herbivore parts P
year_end Year when the study finished, measuring both the plant and the herbivore parts. For studies spanning 1 year or less, start and end year will be the same P
elevation Elevation (meters above sea level) as reported by the authors P
elevation_DEM Elevation as extracted from a digital elevation model D
Study type study_design Study design type; experimental, quasi-experimental/natural experiment, observational or modeling C
experimental_design For experimental, quasi-experimental, and some observational studies; how were the treatments and controls implemented? Before-after, control-impact, before-after-control-impact C
study_method Methodological approach; e.g. field, greenhouse, remote sensing C
exposure_quantification Approach used to create or assess the difference in herbivory (i.e. how are differences in exposure quantified). For example, exclosure, simulated herbivory, spatial contrast/gradient of herbivore abundance C
additional_exposures The other factor, if any, with which herbivory was contrasted/analysed. E.g. warming, snow manipulation P
extent_of_spatial_scale Size of the study area, i.e. the polygon that encompasses all the plots measuring a particular outcome C
spatial_resolution_recorded Spatial scale at which the outcome was measured C
spatial_resolution_reported Spatial scale at which the outcome is reported C
extent_of_temporal_scale Length of study P
temporal_resolution Interval between measurements, if regular and how long C
redundancy Is the data already reported in another study? C
Population: plant biological_organizational_level_recorded Biological organization level at which the outcome was measured. Individual, population/species, group of species, or community C
biological_organizational_level_reported Biological organization level at which the outcome was reported. Individual, population/species, group of species, or community C
Identity_of_biological_organization_unit For individual and population categories in the biological organization level a species list, for groups of species and communities identity as reported by authors (e.g. tall shrub heath, deciduous shrubs) P
management_plant Management status of the targeted plant(s); e.g. fertilizing, managed grazing P
conservation_plant Conservation status of the targeted plant(s); e.g. red listed, no concern P
Outcome: the outcome of herbivory on plant(s) measured_response_variable What was measured on the plants following exposure to herbivory? E.g. biomass, cover diversity P/C
Exposure: herbivory herbivore_identity A species name or a species list, or other definition as given by the authors P
herbivore_type Herbivore functional group C
herbivory_season When herbivory happens (not when the measurement happens) P
effect_type Type of effect the herbivore has on target plants, as reported by authors. E.g. removal of plant parts, fertilizing C
management_herbivore Management status of the targeted herbivore(s); e.g. hunted, semi-domesticated P/C
conservation_ herbivore Conservation status of the targeted herbivore(s); e.g. red listed, no concern C
Modifier: ecological context management Do the authors report any managed herbivores (including target herbivores) or managed plants being present? C
management_study_area Management status of the study area, e.g. historical, current C
conservation_study_area Conservation status of the study area, e.g. protected area, common habitat  
distance_to_treeline Distance to southern border of arctic subzone E D
temperature_P Temperature as reported in the study P
temperature_measure Type of temperature measure reported, e.g. mean annual temperature, average temperature of the warmest month… P
precipitation_P Precipitation (mm) as reported in the study P
precipitation_measure Type of precipitation measurement given, e.g. annual sum P
climate_axis_1 First PCA axis describing climate based on WorldClim bioclimatic variables (mainly temperature) D
climate_axis_2 Second PCA axis describing climate based on WorldClim bioclimatic variables (mainly precipitation) D
climate_axis_3 Third PCA axis describing climate based on WorldClim bioclimatic variables (mainly variability) D
growing_season_ Duration of growing season (days) D
distance_from_coast Distance from the coast (km) D
bioclimatic_zone Bioclimatic zone A to E, or outside the arctic as defined by the bioclimatic zonation D
soil_type Soil type class D
productivity Value of NDVI (vegetation greenness) D
productivity_P Productivity description as reported by the authors (e.g. high productivity habitats) P
extent_of_recent_warming Extent of last decades change in temperature D
extent_of_recent_greening Extent of last decades change in NDVI. D
extent_of_recent_growing_season_change Extent of last decades change in growing season length  
herbivore_diversity species richness of vertebrate herbivores D
habitat_type_P Habitat type as reported by the authors P
habitat_type_C Habitat type, collapsed to fewer categories after the habitat categories by authors have been recorded C
disturbance Disturbance that occurs in the study system and could impact the results/is discussed by the authors. E.g. fire, flooding, ice/winter damage C
permafrost Presence of permafrost D
Additional information food_web_context_other_herbivores Is the presence of other herbivores in the study area described? C
food_web_context_predators Is the presence of predators in the study area described? C
conservation_focus Is the study framed within a conservation context (i.e. conservation aims are mentioned or not)? C
  1. The coding variables are grouped into eight broader topics. Values in column “source” describe where the data is extracted from: P for publication (i.e. data explicitly available in the published document), D for digital spatial data layers (i.e. data extracted from a data layer based on the spatial coordinates given in the publication), and C classified by the reviewers based on information available in the publication. Additional information on (i) references for digital data layers and categories, (ii) possible values for each variable, (iii) more detailed variable description, and (iv) examples and specifications of the possible values are given in the extended table in Additional file 1