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Table 1 Classification of agroforestry systems and specific practices

From: Evidence for the impacts of agroforestry on agricultural productivity, ecosystem services, and human well-being in high-income countries: a systematic map protocol

General practice type Land use and agroforestry practice Brief description
Agrosilviculture/silvoarable Trees integrated in crop fields (multipurpose trees) Trees intercropped with annual or perennial crops; trees randomly or systematically planted in cropland for the purpose of providing fruit, fuel wood, timber, and other services
Hedgerows, shelterbelts, and windbreak systems Trees as fences around plots and/or an extended windbreak of living trees and shrubs established and maintained to protect farmlands
Alley-cropping systems Rows of trees with a companion crop grown in the alleyways between the rows
Improved or rotational fallow Land resting system using trees and shrubs to replenish soil fertility and potentially yield economic benefits, in rotation with crops as in traditional shifting cultivation
Riparian buffer strips Areas along rivers and streams planted with trees, shrubs, and grasses to protect water quality
Silvopasture Trees/shrubs on pasture (multipurpose trees) Trees intercropped on pastures; trees randomly or systematically planted on pasture for the purpose of providing fruit, fuel wood, timber, and other services. Also used for forage/fodder and animal production
Meadow orchards Orchards, including fruit orchards, olive groves, vineyards, and fruit-bearing shrubs, which are grazed or sown with pastures
Hedgerows, shelterbelts, and windbreak systems Trees as fences around plots and/or an extended windbreak of living trees and shrubs established and maintained to protect farmlands and animals and/or provide fodder
Agrosilvipasture Integrated production of animals (meat and dairy), crops, and wood/fuelwood Production of crops, animal/dairy, and wood products within the same land area, including around homesteads
Forest farming Forest farming Forested areas used for production or harvest of naturally standing specialty crops for medicinal, ornamental or culinary uses
Forest grazing Forested areas with the understory grazed as a means of providing forage for animal production
Urban and periurban Homegardens Combining trees/shrubs with vegetable production usually associated with periurban or urban areas
Agroforestry including insects/fish Entomoforestry Production combining trees and insects (e.g. bees for honey and trees)
Aqua-silvo-fishery Trees lining fish ponds, tree leaves being used as ‘forage’ for fish
  1. Definitions are drawn from [18,19,20,21]