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Table 6 Classification of ecosystem services outcomes in broad and specific categories, as presented in [15]

From: Evidence for the impacts of agroforestry on agricultural productivity, ecosystem services, and human well-being in high-income countries: a systematic map protocol

Broad category Specific category Examples
Provisioning Energy Biomass-based energy sources (plant and animal)
Mechanical energy (animal-based)
Materials Biomass (e.g. fiber and other materials from plants, and animals for direct use or processing)
Water (surface or ground water for non-drinking purposes)
Nutrition Biomass (e.g. cultivated crops, reared animals and their outputs, wild plants and animals and their outputs, etc.)
Water (e.g. surface or groundwater for drinking)
Regulation and maintenance Mediation of waste, toxics and other nuisances Filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation/mediation of smell/noise/visual impacts
Weed and pest control
Mediation of flows Mass stabilization and control of erosion rates
Hydrological cycle and water flow maintenance
Flood and storm protection
Ventilation and transpiration
Maintenance of physical, chemical, biological conditions Lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection (pollination and seed dispersal, maintaining nursery populations and habitats)
Biodiversity
Pest and disease control
Soil formation and composition
Water conditions
Atmospheric composition and climate regulation
Cultural Physical and intellectual interactions with environmental settings Physical and experiential interactions (use of plants and animals)
Intellectual and representative interactions (scientific, education, heritage/cultural, aesthetic, etc.)
Spiritual, symbolic and other interactions with environmental settings Spiritual and/or emblematic (symbolic, sacred, and religious use of plants and animals)
Other cultural outputs (existence, bequest of plants and animals)
  1. Specific categories divide each broad category into main types of output or process [61]