Skip to main content


Table 2 Commonly used indicator categories to measure different poverty outcome types

From: A systematic map of evidence on the contribution of forests to poverty alleviation

Outcome type Common categories of indicators used
Monetary income (direct sale) Cash income from sales Dependency on harvest or sale income (percent of total income) Income inequality (Gini coefficient) Perceived impacts on cash income Poverty status (wealth rankings, poverty indices) Transaction costs (cost-benefits)
Monetary income (wage labor) Access to forest-based wage labor Availability of forest-based employment (number of jobs) Change in income from wage labor Change in number individuals employed Perception of change in benefits Poverty status (wealth rankings, poverty indices) Transaction costs (cost-benefits)
Monetary income (value added) Administrative costs, fees, and fines Change in distribution of benefits (income source, socio-economic groups) Change in level of income Change in access to markets Level of community funds available Change in price/value of goods Perception of change in benefits Poverty status (wealth rankings, poverty indices) Transaction costs (cost-benefits)
Physical income (consumption) Amount of forest resources consumed Amount of forest resources collected Dependency and availability of forest resources (contribution to net consumption) Food consumption and food security (amount, frequency, quality) Perceived change in benefits Poverty status (wealth rankings, poverty indices) Transaction costs (costs-benefits) Consumption expenditure
Financial capital (credit, savings, debt) Assets owned Consumption expenditures Access to credit and savings Level of credit and savings
Natural capital (forest assets) Access to forest areas Access, availability of, and dependence on forest products Access to forest-based income generation activities Forest land, trees, plants allocated to individuals/communities Level of assets Level of grazing/harvest/planting intensity Perceptions of change in forest resources, forest quality Perceptions of change in rights to access Rights to access and use
Natural capital (land assets) Access to and availability of cropland, farmland, forest land, grazing land Change in land-based assets Level of landholdings Rights to access and manage
Physical capital (material assets) Access to markets Household appliances and forest industry tools owned Household assets owned Availability and access to energy resources Availability and provision of ecosystem services Structure and quality of houses Change in and quality of communal and physical infrastructure (roads, communications, transportation, community facilities) Level of investment in forest development and community infrastructure Livestock owned Physical security (protection from storms, erosion, etc.…)
Human capital (knowledge, skills) Access to education Level of education attained Knowledge of nature, conservation, sustainable practices Skills gained Trainings conducted Trainings received
Health Access to healthcare facilities and medical expertise Access to food Awareness and knowledge of healthy practices and risks Rate of disease Infrastructure and availability of clean water Maternal health Mortality rates Nutritional status Use and access to preventative medicines and prophylactics
Social capital Social cohesion Conflicts Cooperation Empowerment of local groups Empowerment of women, marginalized groups Formation and membership of community groups and networks Participation in decision-making Perceptions of equity and inclusion Perceptions of trust