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Table 2 Commonly used indicator categories to measure different poverty outcome types

From: A systematic map of evidence on the contribution of forests to poverty alleviation

Outcome typeCommon categories of indicators used
Monetary income (direct sale)Cash income from sales
Dependency on harvest or sale income (percent of total income)
Income inequality (Gini coefficient)
Perceived impacts on cash income
Poverty status (wealth rankings, poverty indices)
Transaction costs (cost-benefits)
Monetary income (wage labor)Access to forest-based wage labor
Availability of forest-based employment (number of jobs)
Change in income from wage labor
Change in number individuals employed
Perception of change in benefits
Poverty status (wealth rankings, poverty indices)
Transaction costs (cost-benefits)
Monetary income (value added)Administrative costs, fees, and fines
Change in distribution of benefits (income source, socio-economic groups)
Change in level of income
Change in access to markets
Level of community funds available
Change in price/value of goods
Perception of change in benefits
Poverty status (wealth rankings, poverty indices)
Transaction costs (cost-benefits)
Physical income (consumption)Amount of forest resources consumed
Amount of forest resources collected
Dependency and availability of forest resources (contribution to net consumption)
Food consumption and food security (amount, frequency, quality)
Perceived change in benefits
Poverty status (wealth rankings, poverty indices)
Transaction costs (costs-benefits)
Consumption expenditure
Financial capital (credit, savings, debt)Assets owned
Consumption expenditures
Access to credit and savings
Level of credit and savings
Natural capital (forest assets)Access to forest areas
Access, availability of, and dependence on forest products
Access to forest-based income generation activities
Forest land, trees, plants allocated to individuals/communities
Level of assets
Level of grazing/harvest/planting intensity
Perceptions of change in forest resources, forest quality
Perceptions of change in rights to access
Rights to access and use
Natural capital (land assets)Access to and availability of cropland, farmland, forest land, grazing land
Change in land-based assets
Level of landholdings
Rights to access and manage
Physical capital (material assets)Access to markets
Household appliances and forest industry tools owned
Household assets owned
Availability and access to energy resources
Availability and provision of ecosystem services
Structure and quality of houses
Change in and quality of communal and physical infrastructure (roads, communications, transportation, community facilities)
Level of investment in forest development and community infrastructure
Livestock owned
Physical security (protection from storms, erosion, etc.…)
Human capital (knowledge, skills)Access to education
Level of education attained
Knowledge of nature, conservation, sustainable practices
Skills gained
Trainings conducted
Trainings received
HealthAccess to healthcare facilities and medical expertise
Access to food
Awareness and knowledge of healthy practices and risks
Rate of disease
Infrastructure and availability of clean water
Maternal health
Mortality rates
Nutritional status
Use and access to preventative medicines and prophylactics
Social capitalSocial cohesion
Conflicts
Cooperation
Empowerment of local groups
Empowerment of women, marginalized groups
Formation and membership of community groups and networks
Participation in decision-making
Perceptions of equity and inclusion
Perceptions of trust