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Table 4 Critical appraisal criteria

From: What is the effectiveness of using conspecific or heterospecific acoustic playbacks for the attraction of animals for wildlife management? A systematic review protocol

Factors under consideration Low bias Medium bias High bias
Study type Experimental   Observational
Study design BACI CI BA
Study plots Homogeneous in size and habitat Homogeneous in size or habitat Not homogeneous in size or habitat
Replication > 3 replicates 2–3 replicates < 2 replicates
Duration of studya > 1 year; multiple breeding seasons < 1 year; longer than one breeding season One breeding season
Account for confounding variables Yes Somewhat No
Statistical analysesb    
  1. aFor studies in which the goal is long-term establishment or breeding and not capture of the animal
  2. bThese will be assessed individually based on each study’s specific question and design