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Table 1 Four methods of operant conditioning in the context of human–wildlife conflict

From: Effectiveness of animal conditioning interventions in reducing human–wildlife conflict: a systematic map protocol

  Assumed value of stimulus to the animal
Reward Punishment
Change in presence of stimulus
 Addition
(Positive conditioning)
Offer an appetitive stimulus (e.g. food) at a location where we want an animal to go to Introduce an aversive deterrent at a location we want an animal to avoid
 Removal
(Negative conditioning)
Remove aversive human-produced noise from a location where we want an animal to go to Remove an appetitive stimulus (e.g. food) from a location we want an animal to avoid