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Table 2 Study validity categories.

From: What evidence exists on the effectiveness of different types of olfactory lures as attractants for invasive mammalian predators? A systematic map protocol

Quality Replication Sample selection Other sources of bias
High Well-replicated (> 10 individuals per group) Random None
Medium Moderate level of replication (5–10 individuals per group) Not stated but clearly random Potential confounder
Low-Poor Poorly replicated or not stated (1–4 individuals per group) Purposive or not stated Clear confounder e.g., repeated measures on same individuals