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Table 2 Terms related to study design and their definitions used throughout the systematic review

From: The effectiveness of spawning habitat creation or enhancement for substrate-spawning temperate fish: a systematic review

Term Definitions
Article An independent publication (i.e., the primary source of relevant information). Used throughout the review
Study An experiment or observation that was undertaken over a specific time period at a particular site (i.e., ecologically independent sites from the same or different article). Used throughout the review
Project Individual investigations within an independent study that differed with respect to ≥ 1 aspects of the study validity criteria (e.g., study design). Used in Review descriptive statistics and Narrative synthesis
Case Situationally defined in text/visual aids. E.g., separate counts for different specific intervention comparisons (i.e., addition of sediment, gravel, boulders) within an independent study. Used in Review descriptive statistics and Narrative synthesis
Data set (1) A single independent study from a single article; or (2) when a single independent study reported separate comparisons for different: (a) species, and/or (b) the same species but responses for different outcome subgroup categories (i.e., abundance, survival, body size), or different intervention subgroup categories (i.e., rock material, plant material, waterbody creation/extension, waterbody modification, human-made structures). The number of data sets was only considered for quantitative analyses