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Table 4 Results of study validity assessment using the critical appraisal tool (see Table 1)

From: The effectiveness of spawning habitat creation or enhancement for substrate-spawning temperate fish: a systematic review

  High Medium Low
Study design BACI 13 BA or CI 82 N/A
Replication at level of intervention n > 5 5 n = 1–4 42 Unreplicated 48
Control matching Well matched at site selection/study initiation 80 Moderately matched at site selection/study initiation 9 Poorly matched at site selection/study initiation 6
Measured outcome Quantitative 79 Semi-quantitative or quantitative approximation 13 Qualitative 3
Confounding factors Intervention and comparator sites are homogenous during study 74 Intervention and comparator sites moderately comparable with respect to confounding factors during study 10 Intervention and comparator sites hardly comparable with respect to confounding factors during study or lacking information to judge 11
  1. Numbers indicates the number of projects that received the critical appraisal score for each criterion