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Table 4 Results of study validity assessment using the critical appraisal tool (see Table 1)

From: The effectiveness of spawning habitat creation or enhancement for substrate-spawning temperate fish: a systematic review

 HighMediumLow
Study designBACI13BA or CI82N/A
Replication at level of interventionn > 55n = 1–442Unreplicated48
Control matchingWell matched at site selection/study initiation80Moderately matched at site selection/study initiation9Poorly matched at site selection/study initiation6
Measured outcomeQuantitative79Semi-quantitative or quantitative approximation13Qualitative3
Confounding factorsIntervention and comparator sites are homogenous during study74Intervention and comparator sites moderately comparable with respect to confounding factors during study10Intervention and comparator sites hardly comparable with respect to confounding factors during study or lacking information to judge11
  1. Numbers indicates the number of projects that received the critical appraisal score for each criterion