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Table 5 Number of cases with low or medium study validity for each intervention type either alone or in combination

From: The effectiveness of spawning habitat creation or enhancement for substrate-spawning temperate fish: a systematic review

  Study validity
Low Medium
Alone
 Rock material
  Gravel 6 4
  Cobble 14 9
  Sediment 0 1
  Sediment trap 1 1
  Gravel washing 4 7
 Plant material
  Brush 4 0
  Log 1 2
 Waterbody creation
  Bay 0 2
  Stream 9 5
 Human-made structure
  Structure 3 2
 Waterbody modification
  Excavate 1 1
  Riparian 1 0
Combinations
 Log + structure 0 1
 Log + excavate 0 1
 Riparian + vegetation 0 1
 Cobble + sediment trap + gravel 1 0
 Gravel + structure 1 2
 Cobble + structure 0 2
 Cobble + log 2 2
 Cobble + nutrient + log 0 1
 Cobble + gravel 3 2
 Cobble + gravel + excavate 0 1
 Cobble + gravel + log 1 0
 Cobble + gravel + structure + log 1 0
 Sediment trap + gravel + log 3 3
 Log + gravel + structure 0 1