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Table 5 Number of cases with low or medium study validity for each intervention type either alone or in combination

From: The effectiveness of spawning habitat creation or enhancement for substrate-spawning temperate fish: a systematic review

 Study validity
LowMedium
Alone
 Rock material
  Gravel64
  Cobble149
  Sediment01
  Sediment trap11
  Gravel washing47
 Plant material
  Brush40
  Log12
 Waterbody creation
  Bay02
  Stream95
 Human-made structure
  Structure32
 Waterbody modification
  Excavate11
  Riparian10
Combinations
 Log + structure01
 Log + excavate01
 Riparian + vegetation01
 Cobble + sediment trap + gravel10
 Gravel + structure12
 Cobble + structure02
 Cobble + log22
 Cobble + nutrient + log01
 Cobble + gravel32
 Cobble + gravel + excavate01
 Cobble + gravel + log10
 Cobble + gravel + structure + log10
 Sediment trap + gravel + log33
 Log + gravel + structure01