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Table 8 Summary results of meta-analyses using subsets of fish abundance effect sizes for testing the influence of the given moderator variable related to our secondary research questions

From: The effectiveness of spawning habitat creation or enhancement for substrate-spawning temperate fish: a systematic review

Moderator k Q statistic (p-value) QM (p-value) QE (p-value)
(A)
 Unmoderated model 38 32.10 (p = 0.698)
 Intervention type 38 6.74 (p = 0.098)* 25.37 (p = 0.826)
(B)     
 Unmoderated model 13 8.25 (p = 0.766)
 Intervention type 13 1.07 (p = 0.586) 7.18 (p = 0.709)
(C)     
 Unmoderated model 39 32.75 (p = 0.711)
 Ecosystem type 39 0.33 (p = 0.568) 32.30 (p = 0.689)
(D)     
 Unmoderated model 38 30.99 (p = 0.746)
 Life stage 38 5.43 (p = 0.020) 25.56 (p = 0.902)
(E)     
 Unmoderated model 30 24.55 (p = 0.701)
 Time since intervention 30 0.003 (p = 0.957) 24.54 (p = 0.653)
  1. Unmoderated model: random-effects model; k: number of effect sizes; Q statistic: value of homogeneity test; QM: omnibus test statistic of moderators; QE: unexplained heterogeneity; CI: 95% confidence intervals
  2. Significance at p < 0.05; * Significance at p < 0.1