Moderator

k

Q statistic (pvalue)

Q_{M} (pvalue)

Q_{E} (pvalue)


(A)

Unmoderated model

38

32.10 (p = 0.698)

–

–

Intervention type

38

–

6.74 (p = 0.098)*

25.37 (p = 0.826)

(B)
    
Unmoderated model

13

8.25 (p = 0.766)

–

–

Intervention type

13

–

1.07 (p = 0.586)

7.18 (p = 0.709)

(C)
    
Unmoderated model

39

32.75 (p = 0.711)

–

–

Ecosystem type

39

–

0.33 (p = 0.568)

32.30 (p = 0.689)

(D)
    
Unmoderated model

38

30.99 (p = 0.746)

–

–

Life stage

38

–

5.43 (p = 0.020)

25.56 (p = 0.902)

(E)
    
Unmoderated model

30

24.55 (p = 0.701)

–

–

Time since intervention

30

–

0.003 (p = 0.957)

24.54 (p = 0.653)

 Unmoderated model: randomeffects model; k: number of effect sizes; Q statistic: value of homogeneity test; Q_{M}: omnibus test statistic of moderators; Q_{E}: unexplained heterogeneity; CI: 95% confidence intervals
 Significance at p < 0.05; * Significance at p < 0.1