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Table 8 Summary results of meta-analyses using subsets of fish abundance effect sizes for testing the influence of the given moderator variable related to our secondary research questions

From: The effectiveness of spawning habitat creation or enhancement for substrate-spawning temperate fish: a systematic review

ModeratorkQ statistic (p-value)QM (p-value)QE (p-value)
(A)
 Unmoderated model3832.10 (p = 0.698)
 Intervention type386.74 (p = 0.098)*25.37 (p = 0.826)
(B)    
 Unmoderated model138.25 (p = 0.766)
 Intervention type131.07 (p = 0.586)7.18 (p = 0.709)
(C)    
 Unmoderated model3932.75 (p = 0.711)
 Ecosystem type390.33 (p = 0.568)32.30 (p = 0.689)
(D)    
 Unmoderated model3830.99 (p = 0.746)
 Life stage385.43 (p = 0.020)25.56 (p = 0.902)
(E)    
 Unmoderated model3024.55 (p = 0.701)
 Time since intervention300.003 (p = 0.957)24.54 (p = 0.653)
  1. Unmoderated model: random-effects model; k: number of effect sizes; Q statistic: value of homogeneity test; QM: omnibus test statistic of moderators; QE: unexplained heterogeneity; CI: 95% confidence intervals
  2. Significance at p < 0.05; * Significance at p < 0.1